Androgens and Anabolic Agents

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Chapter: Medicinal Chemistry : Steroids

Androgens or male sex hormones are synthesized from cholesterol in the testes and adrenal cor tex. In the liver, androgens are formed from C-21 steroids. The ovary also secretes small amounts of androgens. i. Testosterone (Nuvir, Andriol, Testoviron) ii. Methyl testosterone iii. Fluoxymesterone (Halotestin)


Steroids - Drugs Acting on Endocrine System

ANDROGENS AND ANABOLIC AGENTS

Androgens or male sex hormones are synthesized from cholesterol in the testes and adrenal cor tex. In the liver, androgens are formed from C-21 steroids. The ovary also secretes small amounts of androgens.

 

Classification

1.           Androgenic or male sex characteristics promoting activity: Compounds with androgenic activity are called androgens. It includes normal development, functioning, and maintenance of the male sex organs and sexual characteristics.

2.           Anabolic or muscle building activity: Compounds with anabolic activity are called anabolic agents. It causes nitrogen retention by increasing the rate of protein synthesis, decreasing the rate of protein catabolism, and thus, promotes laying down of new tissues. It also stimulates the thickness rise and linear growth of the bones to some extent. The distinction of anabolic therapy of such wasting conditions such as cancer, trauma, osteoporosis, and also effects of immobilizations are also treated by the anabolic agents.

 

i. Testosterone (Nuvir, Andriol, Testoviron)


Properties and uses: It is a creamy white crystalline powder, insoluble in water, and soluble in alcohol. It may be used for palliative treatment of breast carcinoma in postmenopausal women.

Assay: Dilute the sample in alcohol to 50 ml with ethyl alcohol. Measure the absorption at 241 nm.

Dose: The dose for prolonged treatment subcutaneously is 600 mg. For breast cancer, the dose is up to 1.5 g; alternatively, 10 to 30 mg per day through buccal administration.

Synthesis


 

ii. Methyl testosterone


Synthesis


 

iii. Fluoxymesterone (Halotestin)


Properties: It exists as a white crystalline powder and insoluble in water. It is used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in combination with an estrogen.

Dose: The dose orally for adults in the replacement therapy is 1–3 mg twice a day.

Synthesis



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