Biosynthesis of Corticosteroids

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Chapter: Essential pharmacology : Corticosteroids

The corticoids (both gluco and mineralo) are 21 carbon compounds having a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene (steroid) nucleus. They are synthesized in the adrenal cortical cells from cholesterol.


BIOSYNTHESIS

 

The corticoids (both gluco and mineralo) are 21 carbon compounds having a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene (steroid) nucleus. They are synthesized in the adrenal cortical cells from cholesterol. A simplified version of the biosynthetic pathways is presented in Fig. 20.1. Adrenal steroidogenesis takes place under the influence of ACTH which makes more cholesterol available for conversion to pregnenolone and induces steroidogenic enzymes. Since adrenal cortical cells store only minute quantities of the hormones, rate of release is governed by the rate of biosynthesis.



 

The normal rate of secretion of the two principal corticoids in man isβ€”

 

Hydrocortisoneβ€”10–20mg daily (nearly half of this in the few morning hours).

Aldosterone         β€” 0.125 mg daily.

 

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