Chloroquine

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Chapter: Essential pharmacology : Antiamoebic And Other Antiprotozoal Drugs

It kills trophozoites of E. histolytica and is highly concentrated in liver. Therefore, it is used in hepatic amoebiasis only. Because it is completely absorbed from the upper intestine and not so highly concentrated in the intestinal wall— it is neither effective in invasive dysentery nor in controlling the luminal cycle (cyst passers).


CHLOROQUINE

 

The pharmacology of chloroquine is described in Ch. No. 59. It kills trophozoites of E. histolytica and is highly concentrated in liver. Therefore, it is used in hepatic amoebiasis only. Because it is completely absorbed from the upper intestine and not so highly concentrated in the intestinal wall— it is neither effective in invasive dysentery nor in controlling the luminal cycle (cyst passers).

 

Efficacy of chloroquine in amoebic liver abscess approaches that of emetine, but duration of treatment is longer and relapses are relatively more frequent. Amoebae do not develop resistance to chloroquine.

 

Because of the relative safety of chloroquine it may be given concurrently or immediately after a course of metronidazole to ensure complete eradication of the trophozoites in liver. A luminal amoebicide must always be given with or after chloroquine to abolish the luminal cycle.

 

Dose for amoebic liver abscess: 600 mg (base) for two days followed by 300 mg daily for 2–3 weeks. It is now employed only when metronidazole is not effective or not tolerated.

 

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