Classification of Creams

| Home | | Pharmacy Cosmetic Formulation |

Chapter: Textbook of Cosmetic Formulation : Creams

Creams are classified according to their functions. They are:


CLASSIFICATION

 

 

Creams are classified according to their functions. They are:

 

 

1.           Cleansing and Cold Creams.

 

2.           Foundation and Vanishing Creams.

 

3.           Night and Message Creams.

 

4.           Hand and Body Creams.

 

5.           All-purpose Creams is Cleansing and Cold Creams

 

 

1. Cleansing And Cold Creams:

 

 

Cleansing Creams: They are used for the purpose of removing makeup, surface grime (layer of dirt on skin) and secretions of skin from the face and throat respectively.

 

 

Properties:

 

·                               They are easy to apply.

 

·                               They spread easily on the skin.

 

·                               They are pleasant in appearance.

 

·                               They cause less irritation to the skin.

 

·                               They should melt or liquefy when applied on to the skin.

 

·                               They should produce flushing action on skin and its pore openings.

 

·                               They should form an emollient film on the skin after application.

 

·                               They should not make skin dry which happens in case, when the skin is washed with water and soap.

 

·                               They should remove chemicals of facial makeup effectively. They dissolve the greasy binding materials which hold the pigment and finally remove them.

·                               They should remove solidified oil, sebum, sebum plaques and surface oil layer from the skin.

 

·                               They also help in softening, lubricating and protecting skin apart from cleansing purposes.

 

They are applied on face and throat with the help of finger tips. Then the fingers are rotated upwards on the skin for spreading purpose. Tissue paper or cotton wool used to remove the residue of the cream. The layer which is left on the skin should be non-occlusive and emollient in order to prevent drying.

 

 

Cleansing creams are of two types. They are:

 

 

(i)          Bees wax-borax type / Emulsified type.

(ii)        (ii) Liquefying type.

 

 

(i)          Bees Wax-borax Type / Emulsified Type: It is considered as an important formulation in cleansing creams. This type of preparation liquefies when 'applied to the skin, which helps in easy spreading. It is white, lustrous and good consistency.

 

 

It is an oil-in water type of emulsion, in which high percentage of mineral oil is present. This mineral oil helps in imparting cleansing property. Phase inversion takes place due to evaporation of water after the creams are rubbed on the skin. The phase inversion (i.e., water in-oil type) helps in imparting the cleansing action.

 

 

Formula-1   Quantity for 100 g

 

   

Mineral oil (lubricant)      28 g

   

Isopropyl myristate (lubricant and emollient)        14 g

   

Acetoglyceride (luster)      2.5 g

   

Petroleum jelly (lubricant)         7.5 g

   

Beeswax (emollient) 15 g

   

Borax (buffer)         1 g

   

Water (vehicle)        32 g

   

Preservative   q. s

   

Perfume (odour)      q. s

 

 

Mineral oil, isopropyl myristate, acetoglyceride, petroleum jelly and bees wax heated to a temperature of about 75°C in a separate glass container (ingredients having least melting point are melted first and then high melting point ingredients are melted). This is mixture A.

 

In other glass container borax and water are heated to same temperature i.e., 75°C.preservatives are dissolved in water before he ating. This is mixture B.

 

Mixture B is added to the mixture A slowly, along with continuous stirring. Stirring carried out until a thick stable emulsion is formed.

        

Perfume is added to the preparation when it attains a temperature of 35°C and stirring is carried out.

 

Then the preparation is passed through a triple roller mill for milling purpose.

 

Preparation is transferred and stored in a suitable container.

 

 

(ii)           Liquefying Type: This type of creams consist of a mixture of oil and water which are translucent in nature. They are translucent in nature, they are anhydrous creams with thixotropic character i.e., they liquefy when applied on skin.

 

 

    Ingredients        Uses

             

 

1. Paraffin wax:      Responsible for thixotropic character.

            

2. Mineral oil and wax:  (proportion should be Phase separation,  sweating  and  granular proper) appearance is avoided.

            

3. Amorphous ozokerite and petrolatum:  To avoid formation of crusty surface.

   

1.   Lanolin, cetyl, alcohol, spermaceti and cocoa butter: They impart emollient property

 

5. Zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, magnesium stearate, zinc stearate or hydrous lanolin (used in 2% concentration) : To impart opaque appearance

 

 

Formula       Quantity for 100 g

   

 

Mineral oil (lubricant)      80 g

   

Petrolatum (protective agent)     15 g

   

Ozokerite wax (humectants)       5 g

   

Preservative   q. s

   

Perfume (odour)      q. s

   

 

Method:

 

Mineral oil, petrolatum and ozokerite wax are heated together to a temperature of about 65°C (First ozokerite wax is melted followed by petrolatum and mineral oil). The above mixture is cooled along with continuous stirring.

 

Preservative and perfume are added to the mixture after it attains a temperature of 40° C.

 

Then the preparation is transferred and stored in a syllabic container.

 

 

Cold Creams: These types of creams are water-in-oil type of emulsion. They produce cooling sensation by the evaporation of water, after application of cream to the skin. Hence, they are known as cream. They should possess emollient action and the layer left on the skin after application should be non-occlusive.

 

 

Formula       Quantity for 100 g

 

   

White beeswax (emollient) 20 g

   

Mineral oil (lubricant)      50 g

   

Distilled water (vehicle)     28.8 g

   

Borax (buffer)         0.7 g

   

Perfume (odour)      0.5 g

 

 

Method:

 

Beeswax is melted in a container by using water bath to a temperature of about 70° C.

 

Then mineral oil is added to the melted beeswax. This is mixture A.

 

In another container, water is heated to a temperature of about 70° C and borax is dissolved in it. This is mixture B.

 

Mixture B (aqueous phase) is added slowly to mixture A (oily phase) along with stirring. Stirring is carried out until a creamy emulsion is formed.

 

Finally, perfume is added to the preparation when it attains a temperature of about 40°C.

 

 

1.   Vanishing And Foundation Creams:

 

These creams are also referred to as 'Day Creams' as they are applied during day times. These creams provide emollient as well as protective action to the skin against environmental conditions by- forming a semi-occlusive residual-film. This film is neither greasy nor oily.


 

 

(a)          Vanishing Creams: They are oil in water type of emulsion. When applied on the surface of skin, they spread as thin oil less film which is not visible to the naked eye. Hence, they are called as vanishing creams. They are used to hold powder on the skin as well as to improve adhesion.

 

 

Properties:

 

·                               It should have high melting point.

 

·                               It should be pure white in colour.

 

·                               It should possess very little odour.

 

·                               It should have less number of iodine.

 

 

Ingredients And  Its Uses

            


 

 

Formula-1   Quantity for 100 g

   

 

Stearic acid (lubricant)     24 g

   

Potassium hydroxide (softening agent) 1 g

   

Water (vehicle)        64 g

   

Glycerin (humectants)      10.5 g

   

Perfume (odour)      0.5 g

 

 

Method:

 

Stearic acid is melted in a container by using water bath.

 

 

Potassium hydroxide is dissolved in water and then glycerin is added. This mixture is heated to a temperature of about 75' C. This is aqueous phase.

 

Slowly aqueous phase is added to melted stearic acid along with continuous stirring.

 

Perfume is added to the preparation when it attains a temperature of 40° C.

 

Note: During cooling, care should to be taken, as the cream passes, through two transformations i.e., softening and hardening. Then cream attains its desired form. Even formation of crust on the top surface of cream should be avoided by stirring to prevent lump formation.

 

 

(b)           Foundation Creams: They provide emollient base or foundation to the skin. They are applied before applying face powder or other preparations of make-up.

 

 

Properties:

 

·                               Adhesion of powder to the skin is improved by these creams, as they possess good holding capacity.

 

·                               They should be easily spread on the skin.

 

·                               They should be non-greasy in nature.

 

·                               They should be capable of leaving a non-occlusive film on the skin after application.

 

 

Ingredients: Ingredients are similar to that of vanishing creams. Except some of the ingredients which are as follows:

 

Ingredients  Uses

   

 

 

They are of two types:

 

(i)          Pigmented Foundation Creams: They are colored creams.

 

(ii)             Unpigmented Foundation creams: These creams do not contain pigments in the formulation.

 

 

Formula-2   Quantity for 100 g

   

 

Lanolin (emollient)  2 g

   

Cetyl alcohol  0.50 g

   

Stearic acid (lubricant)     10 g

   

Potassium hydroxide ( softening agent )        0.40 g

 

 

Method:

 

Lanolin, cetyl alcohol, stearic acid and potassium hydroxide are heated to a temperature of about 75°C in one container. This is oily phase.

 

In another container, water and propylene glycol are heated to same temperature i.e., 75°C. Preservatives should be dissolved in water be fore heating is carried out. This is aqueous phase.

 

Then slowly aqueous phase is added to oily phase along with continuous stirring until the preparation becomes cold. 4. Perfume is added to the preparation when the above mixture reaches a temperature of 35°C.

 

Finally the preparation is passed through a triple roller mill for milling purpose, (milling is carried out to obtain a good product).

 

 

Foundation Make-up: Foundation make-up cream helps in overcoming the trouble associated with foundation creams i.e., application of foundation cream is a two-step process where it acts as a base to hold the powder makeup. These two step can be avoided by using foundation make-up. These are available various forms especially the liquid foundation make-up- is popular because it easy to apply compared to lose powders and it also provide smooth appearance to the skin.

 

 

Surfactants present in the foundation make-up may allow the pigments or colours to penetrate into hair follicles and fissures present in the epidermis of the skin. Hence, should be completely removed after application.

 

 

Formula-3   Quantity for 100 g

 

   

Lanette  wax  8 g

   

Stearic acid (lubricant)     8 g

   

Water (vehicle)        64 g

   

Glycerin (humectants)      10 g

   

Powder (base) 1 0g

   

Color    q. s

   

Perfume (odour)      q. s

   

preservatives  q. s

 

 

Method:

 

Lanette wax, stearic acid and water are heated to a temperature of about 85-900 C in a separate container. Preservative should be dissolved in water before heating of mixture. This is mixture A.

 

Colour and perfume are added to powder base and mixed. Then this mixture is dispersed in glycerin. This is mixture B.

 

Mixture B is added to mixture A and then it is mixed thoroughly.

 

 

3. Night And Massage Creams:

 

 

(a)              Night Creams: The preparations which are applied during night time and removed in the morning are called night creams.

 

 

(b)               Massage Creams: The preparations which are gently applied and rubbed on the skin through massage technique are called massage creams. Skin becomes dry due to the following reason:

 

 

·                                   When stratum corneum is exposed to low humidity, excessive loss of water takes place which attributes to dryness of skin.

 

·                                   When the lower layer of epidermis does not hydrate properly.

 

·                                   When the skin is in contact with soap or solutions of detergent for long time.

 

 

Reason: The hygroscopic substances present in the stratum corneum of the skin are responsible for water binding capacity. These hygroscopic substances are protected by fatty materials which are not easily removed by water alone. But with the use of solvent and water or detergent solutions, These substances are removed and makes the skin dry. In order to make the dry skin smooth, water is incorporated into the horny layery.

 

This can be achieved by:

 

·                                   Increasing the process of diffusion of the living cells of epidermis.

 

·                                   Water is incorporated into the horny layer of the epidermis from outside i.e., by using creams, lotions etc,.

 

·                                   Surface of the skin is occluded in order to prevent evaporation of water. Creams i.e., night and massage creams act in the same way in order to make the dry skin smooth. Hence, these creams are also known as emollient creams.

 

 

Properties:

 

·                                   These creams are formulated with fatty substances which help in easy spreading on the skin.

 

·                                   These creams help in providing occlusive layer to the skin, which reduce the rate of water loss from the transepidermal layer. The occlusive layer is also responsible for providing moisturizing effect on the skin.

 

 

Ingredients: Ingredients are either water soluble or fat soluble.

         

 

                      

 

Formula -1  Quantity for 100 g

   

 

Mineral oil (lubricant )     38 g

   

Petroleum jelly (lubricant )        8 g

   

White beeswax (emollient) 15 g

   

Paraffin wax (base and lubricant )       1 g

   

Lanolin (emollient ) 2 g

   

Borax ( buffer )        1 g

   

Water (vehicle)        35 g

   

Perfume (odour)      q. s

   

Preservatives  q. s

   

Antioxidant (to prevent oxidation )      q. s

 

 

Method:

 

Mineral oil, petroleum jelly, white beeswax, paraffin wax and lanolin are heated to a temperature of about 75°C in a one container. This is mixture A.

 

Borax, water and antioxidant are heated in another separate container to same temperature i.e. 75°C. Preservative is dissolved in water before heating the mixture. This is mixture B.

 

Slowly mixture B is added to mixture A along with continuous stirring.

 

Perfume is added after the preparation has attained a temperature of about 35°C.

 

 

4.              Hand And Body Creams:

 

Due to exposure of skin to water, soaps and detergents many times a day, removal of lipids and other secretions from the skin occurs. Cold and dry winds are responsible for chapping of the skin. Chapping occurs due to loss of moisture from the skin, which is also associated with cracking.

 

 

Water is sufficient enough to treat the dryness of the skin, but evaporation of water takes place rapidly, which again, makes the skin dry and no emollient effect is produced.

 

 

In case, if hands are immersed in water for longer time then abnormal hydration takes place. This hydration will lead to swelling of cells in stratum corneum, which ultimately results in rupturing of cells.

 

 

Hence, hand and body creams are formulated with suitable emollient, which not only make water available but also regulates the water take-up by the cells of stratum corneum.

 

 

Properties:

 

·                               They are easy to apply.

 

·                               They help in softening or imparting emollient effect to hands.

 

·                               They should not leave behind sticky film after their application.

 

·                               They should not interfere with perspiration of the skin as it may re bioavailability.

 

·                               Perfume and colour should be added in the cream preparation for pleasant smell and appearance.

 

 

Ingredients:

 


 

Method:

 

Isopropyl myristate, mineral oil, emulsifying wax and lanolin are heated in a container. This is a mixture A.

Glycerin, triethanolamine and water are heated in a separate container .preservative is dissolved in water before heating the mixture. this is a mixture B.

 

Mixture B is added to mixture A along with continuous stirring until cream is formed.

 

Perfume is added to the preparation when it reaches a temperature of 35°C.

 

Finally, the preparation is passed through a triple roller mill for milling, which provides good texture.

 

 

Formula-1   Quantity for 100 g

 

   

Isopropyl myristate (lubricant and emollient)        4 g

   

Mineral oil (lubricant)      2 g

   

Stearic acid (lubricant)     3 g

   

Emulsifying wax (emulsifier)      0.275 g

   

Lanolin  (emollient) 2.5 g

   

Glycerin (humectants )      3 g

   

Triethanolamine (emulsifying agent)   1 g

   

Water (vehicle)        84.225 g

   

Perfume (odour)      q. s

   

Preservatives  q. s

 

 

5.           All-Purpose Creams/Sports Creams:

 

These creams are used by sport persons and also by people who do outdoor activities. Hence, they are called as sport creams.

 

 

·                               They are oily in nature but non-greasy type.

 

·                               They provide protective film to the skin.

 

·                               They make the rough surfaces of the skin smooth.

 

·                               When it is applied in more quantity, it act as

 

(a)                                   Nourishing agent

 

(b)                                  Protective cream in order to protect the skin from sunburn.

 

(c)                                   Night cream.

 

(d)                                  Cleansing cream

 

·                               When it is applied in less quantity, it act as

 

(a)                                   Hand creams

 

(b)                                  (b) Foundation creams

 

Ingredients: The various ingredients used in the formulation are as follows:

 

 

                         

                      

 

Formula-1   Quantity for 100 g

   

 

Wool alcohol (emollient)   6 g

   

Hard paraffin( soothing agent)  24 g

   

White soft paraffin (emollient)   10 g

   

Liquid paraffin (emollient)         60 g

   

Perfume (odour)      q. s

   

Antioxidant   q. s

   

 

Method:

 

Wool alcohol, hard paraffin, soft paraffin, liquid paraffin and antioxidant are melted.

 

Stirring is carried out until the preparation is cooled.

 

Perfume is added to the preparation, when it reaches a temperature of 35°C. Hydrous ointment can be prepared by using the same base ingredients but with the incorporation of equal amount of water.

 

Contact Us, Privacy Policy, Terms and Compliant, DMCA Policy and Compliant

TH 2019 - 2022 pharmacy180.com; Developed by Therithal info.