Classification of Local Anaesthetics

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Chapter: Medicinal Chemistry : Local Anaesthetics

I. Benzoic acid derivatives II. p-Amino benzoic acid derivatives III. Anilide derivatives (2,6 Xylidines) IV. Miscellaneous


CLASSIFICATION

Local anaesthetics are generally classified into the following groups :

  1. Natural agents

    1. Cocaine

  2. Synthetic nitrogenous compounds

    1. Derivatives of benzoic acid

    2. Derivatives of para-amino benzoic acid

      1. Freely soluble: Procaine, Amethocaine.

      2. Poorly soluble: Benzocaine, Orthocaine

    3. Derivatives of acetanilide: Lignocaine, Mepivacaine, Bupivacaine, Prilocaine, Etidocaine.

    4. Derivatives of quinoline: Cinchocaine, dimethisoquin

  3. Synthetic non-nitrogenous agents: Benzyl alcohol, propanediol

  4. Miscellaneous drugs with local action: Clove oil, phenol, chlorpromazine and certain antihistamines, for example, diphenhydramine

On the basis of chemical structure, local anaesthetics are classified as follows:


I. Benzoic acid derivatives




II. p-Amino benzoic acid derivatives




III. Anilide derivatives (2,6 Xylidines)



IV. Miscellaneous



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