Classification of Sedatives and Hypnotics

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Chapter: Medicinal Chemistry : Sedatives and Hypnotics

Sedatives and hypnotics are classified on the basis of their chemical structure, as follows:


CLASSIFICATION

Sedatives and hypnotics are classified on the basis of their chemical structure, as follows:

  1. Barbiturates

  2. Benzodiazepines

  3. Acyclic hypnotics containing nitrogen

  4. Cyclic hypnotics containing nitrogen

  5. Alcohols and aldehydes

  6. Acetylene derivatives

  7. Miscellaneous

  1. Inorganic salts

  2. Acids and esters

  3. Antihistaminic and anticholinergic agents

  4. Suphones

  5. Plant extracts

  6. Endogenous substances

  7. Other opioids: morphine, pethidine

  8. Neuroleptics: chlorpromazine, triflupromazine

8. Newer agents


1. Barbiturates


Barbiturates are further classified on the basis of duration of their action.

a. Long-acting barbiturates (6 h or more than 6 h)


b. Intermediate-acting barbiturates (3–6 h)


c. Short-acting barbiturates (less than 3 h)


d. Ultra short-acting barbiturates (15 min)


2. Benzodiazepines



Triazolo benzodiazepines


3. Acyclic hypnotics containing nitrogen (acyclic ureides)

a. Urethanes


b. Ureides


c. Carbamates


d. Amides


4. Cyclic hypnotics containing nitrogen

a. Piperidinediones


b. Quinazolinones


5. Alcohols and aldehydes


6. Actylene derivatives


7. Miscellaneous

  1. Inorganic salts

KBr, magnesium sulphate

  1. Acids and esters

Tryptophan, 5-hydroxy tryptophan 

Etomidate


c. Antihistamines and anticholinergics


d. Sulphones

Toxic-not used

e. Plant extracts of 

Radix valerianae 

Rauwolfia serpentina 

Avana sativa 

Glandula lupuli

f. Endogenous substances: peptides

8. Newer agents




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