Drying of Crude Drugs

| Home | | Pharmacognosy |

Chapter: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry : Cultivation, Collection and Processing of Herbal Drugs

Before marketing a crude drug, it is necessary to process it properly, so as to preserve it for a longer time and also to acquire better pharmaceutical elegance. This process-ing includes several operations or treatments, depending upon the source of the crude drug (animal or plant) and its chemical nature.


DRYING OF CRUDE DRUGS

 

 

Before marketing a crude drug, it is necessary to process it properly, so as to preserve it for a longer time and also to acquire better pharmaceutical elegance. This process-ing includes several operations or treatments, depending upon the source of the crude drug (animal or plant) and its chemical nature. Drying consists of removal of suffi-cient moisture content of crude drug, so as to improve its quality and make it resistant to the growth of microorgan-isms. Drying inhibits partially enzymatic reactions. Drying also facilitates pulverizing or grinding of a crude drug. In certain drugs, some special methods are required to be followed to attain specific standards, e.g. fermentation in case of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark and gentian roots. The slicing and cutting into smaller pieces is done to enhance drying, as in case of glycyrrhiza, squill and calumba. The flowers are dried in shade so as to retain their colour and volatile oil content. Depending upon the type of chemical constituents, a method of drying can be used for a crude drug. Drying can be of two types - (1) natural (sun drying) and (2) artificial.

 

 

Natural Drying (Sun-Drying)

 

In case of natural drying, it may be either direct sun-drying or in the shed. If the natural colour of the drug (digitalis, clove, senna) and the volatile principles of the drug (pep-permint) are to be retained, drying in shed is preferred. If the contents of the drugs are quite stable to the temperature and sunlight, the drugs can be dried directly in sunshine (gum acacia, seeds and fruits).

 

Artificial Drying

 

Drying by artificial means includes drying the drugs in (a) an oven; i.e. tray-dryers; (b) vacuum dryers and (c) spray dryers.

 

 

a. Tray dryers

 

The drugs which do not contain volatile oils and are quite stable to heat or which need deactivation of enzymes are dried in tray dryers. In this process, hot air of the desired temperature is circulated through the dryers and this facili-tates the removal of water content of the drugs (belladonna roots, cinchona bark, tea and raspberry leaves and gums are dried by this method).

 

b. Vacuum dryers

 

The drugs which are sensitive to higher temperature are dried by this process, e.g. Tannic acid and digitalis leaves.

 

c. Spray dryers

 

Few drugs which are highly sensitive to atmospheric condi-tions and also to temperature of vacuum-drying are dried by spray-drying method. The technique is followed for quick drying of economically important plant or animal constituents, rather than the crude drugs. Examples of spray drying are papaya latex, pectin, tannins, etc.

 

Contact Us, Privacy Policy, Terms and Compliant, DMCA Policy and Compliant

TH 2019 - 2022 pharmacy180.com; Developed by Therithal info.