Pharmaceutical considerations

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Chapter: Pharmaceutical Drugs and Dosage: Pharmaceutical considerations

Drug substances are seldom administered alone; rather, they are given as part of a formulation, in combination with one or more nonmedical agents (known as pharmaceutical ingredients or excipients) that serve varied and specialized pharmaceutical functions.


Pharmaceutical considerations

Introduction

Drug substances are seldom administered alone; rather, they are given as part of a formulation, in combination with one or more nonmedical agents (known as pharmaceutical ingredients or excipients) that serve varied and specialized pharmaceutical functions. Commonly used pharmaceutical ingredients are listed in Table 3.1. Pharmaceutical ingredients solubilize, suspend, thicken, dilute, emulsify, stabilize, preserve, color, flavor, and fashion medicinal agents into efficacious and appealing dosage forms.

Drug absorption depends on its lipid solubility, formulation, and the route of administration. The proper design and formulation of a dosage form require a thorough understanding of the physical, chemical, and biologic characteristics of the drug substances as well as that of the pharmaceutical ingredients to be used in fabricating the product. The drug and pharma-ceutical ingredients must be compatible with one another to produce a drug product that is stable, efficacious, attractive, easy to administer, and safe.

Table 3.1 List of pharmaceutical ingredients



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