Preparation Method of Shampoo

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Chapter: Textbook of Cosmetic Formulation : Shampoos

Simple procedure is involved in the preparation of shampoo. Initially only one method available for the preparation of shampoo, but later the basic method was modified in order to obtain different type of shampoo like cream, gel, aerosol etc.


PREPARATION OF SHAMPOO

 

Simple procedure is involved in the preparation of shampoo. Initially only one method available for the preparation of shampoo, but later the basic method was modified in order to obtain different type of shampoo like cream, gel, aerosol etc.


 

General Method For Preparation Of Shampoo:

 

Liquid shampoo is usually prepared by this method which involves the following steps:

 

Initially the detergent is converted into a solution form or a detergent solution ma ho directly obtained from the manufacturer.

 

Take about half of the detergent solution into a separate container. To it, add the total amount of secondary surfactant i.e., alkanolamide.

 

Dissolve the alkanolamide along with stirring. Sometimes, gentle heat is also applied. To the remaining half of the detergent solution add suitable amount of perfuming agent and dissolve it.

 

The perfume solution is then added to the alkanolamide solution.

 

Colour and preservatives are dissolved separately in sufficient volume of water and then added to the main solution.

 

The whole, solution is mixed well by gentle stirring. Excessive stirring may lead to bubble formation.

 

Final volume of the preparation is usually adjusted by the addition of clear sterile waste. This gives clear liquid shampoo.

 

However, When the preparation contains lauryl alcohol ether sulphate. It is required to adjust the viscosity of the shampoo.

 

Viscosity adjustment is done by using an electrolyte solution. Usually, a solution of sodium chloride is added subsequently with constant stirring. Care must be taken to it event the excess addition of sodium chloride.

 

 

Methods Of Preparation:

 

The methods of preparation of various types of shampoos are modification of the above mentioned general method of preparation of shampoos.

 

 

(a)            Preparation of Cream Shampoo: Certain formulae of cream shampoo may include glycol stearate or waxes. Usually, glycol stearate is used as an opacifier and preparation method for such formulae is similar as discussed above. But when wax is included in the formula, the process involves the following steps.

 

Initially, a solution of detergent and water are heated to about 80°C.

 

The wax is heated separately in a container at 80°C which facilitates the melting of wax.

 

Both the solutions are kept at 80°C and mixed uniform mixing by constant and gentle stirring.

 

The solution is allowed to cool to about 40- 45°C. After which the remaining ingredients, such as additives, colours, perfume and preservatives are added. The stirring is continued.

Finally, under warm conditions, the mixture is transferred into a suitable container and packed.

 

 

 

(b)          Preparation of Gel Shampoo: The method involved in the preparation of gel shampoo is similar to that of clear liquid shampoo. After preparation, the liquid shampoo is usually treated with a suitable thickening or gelling agent such as hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, this gives a gel like consistency. Addition of appropriate amount of anionic and amphoteric surfactants also leads to the formation of gels.

 

 

(c)           Preparation of Aerosol Shampoo: This type of shampoo is initially prepared by using (earlier discussed) general method. The prepared shampoo is then incorporated with a suitable propellant. The whole mixture is packed in an aerosol container. The propellant creates a pressure within the container due to which spraying action is achieved and the product (shampoo) is sprayed in the form of foam. Here packing plays an important role and the propellant used should not react with the shampoo.

 

 

(d)           Preparation of Powder Shampoo: Powder shampoo is prepared by simple blending. Here, all the ingredients are taken in a state. They are powdered to suitable degree of fineness. The powdered ingredients are blended by using a suitable blender. Two separate solutions of perfume and colour are prepared by using alcohol or water as solvents. The prepared solutions are then sprayed onto the blended mixture. The wet mixture is dried and packed. Otherwise, the ingredients are internally soaked into the solutions of colour and perfume. Wet mass is dried and then subjected to blending.

 

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