Review questions answers

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Chapter: Pharmaceutical Drugs and Dosage: Organ-specific drug delivery

Pharmaceutical Drugs and Dosage: Organ-specific drug delivery - Review questions answers


Review questions

 

15.1 Which of the following routes of drug administration does not bypass the hepatic first-pass metabolism?

A.      Oral route of drug delivery

B.      Sublingual absorption of a drug

C.      Transdermal route of drug delivery

D.      Vaginal route of drug absorption

15.2 Which of the following is not a barrier to the absorption of lipophilic molecules across the epithelial cell lining of the blood–brain barrier?

A.      Metabolizing enzymes

B.      Efflux transporters

C.      Liophilic cell membrane

D.      Intercellular tight junctions

15.3 Which of the following cell types is primarily responsible for the secretion of fibrinogen in damaged liver, which contributes to hepatic cirrhosis?

A.      Hepatocytes

B.      Kupffer cells

C.      Hepatic stellate cells

D.      Epithelial cells

15.4 Which of the following routes of drug administration into the eye is subjected to tear clearance and blinking-associated tear loss as a bar-rier to drug absorption?

A.      Retrobulbar route

B.      Intravitreal route

C.      Subtenon route

D.      Topical route

15.5 Which of the following types of chemical bonds is utilized for colonic drug targeting through enzymatic cleavage by the resident anaerobic bacteria to release the parent drug?

A.      Azo bonds

B.      Ester bonds

C.      Ether bonds

D.      Amide bonds

15.6 Which of the following is not a strategy to achieve drug release in the latter parts of the intestinal tract after oral drug administration?

A.      Enteric coating

B.      Osmotic pump-based sustained drug release

C.      pH-dependent drug release

D.      Time-dependent drug release

15.7 Which of the following is not a contributing factor to the low oral bioavailability of protein and peptide drugs?

A.      Large hydrodynamic diameter

B.      Overall hydrophilic nature

C.      Cleavage of peptide bonds by enzymes and the pH environment

D.      Presence of side chains on the amino acids constituting the pep-tide backbone

15.8 Which of the following strategies for drug delivery and targeting necessarily require covalent modification of the drug molecule?

A.      Liposomes

B.      Micelles

C.      Nanoparticles

D.      Prodrugs

15.9 Which of the following strategies increases the circulation half-life of a drug by avoidance of the reticuloendothelial cell system (RES) uptake?

A.      PEGylation

B.      Liposomal incorporation

C.      Prodrug strategy

D.      Incorporation in a micelle

15.10 Which of the following modes of drug absorption does not depend on the concentration gradient of the drug?

A.      Passive transport across endothelial cell membranes of the blood–brain barrier

B.      Drug absorption across the sublingual tissue

C.      Transporter-mediated drug uptake

D.      Drug transport across the tight junctions between the endothelial cells

Answers:

15.1 A.

15.2 D.

15.3 C.

15.4 D.

15.5 A.

15.6 B.

15.7 D.

15.8 D.

15.9 A.

15.10 C.

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