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Chapter: Pharmaceutical Drugs and Dosage: Powders and granules

Pharmaceutical Drugs and Dosage: Powders and granules - Review questions answers


Review questions

 

19.1 Identify which of the following represent an intrinsic (inherent) char-acteristic of powder particles or a bulk property of powders: crystal-linity, porosity, density, flow, content uniformity, compactibility, size, and shape.

19.2 Which of the following unit operations are likely to affect particle size and shape: mixing, compaction, granulation, and milling?

19.3 Density.

A.      Rank the three kinds of density of a powder in the expected increasing order of magnitude: true density, BD, and TD.

B.      Which of these densities is related to the porosity of the powder particles?

C.      Which density classification is expected to have the highest inter-particulate spaces?

D.      Which density is most relevant to the equipment capacity determi-nation during pharmaceutical manufacturing?

E.       Which densities are the most involved in determining the flow characteristics of the powder?

19.4 Identify which of the following represent potentially surface-mediated powder properties: sticking to the tablet tooling, true density, electrostatic charge, plastic deformation during compaction, flow, and/ or crystallinity.

19.5 Particle size.

A.      Identify which of the following particle diameters represent the sphere of equivalent surface area: d[1,0], d[2,0], d[3,0], d[4,3], d[3,2], d(90), d(50), d(10).

B.      Identify which of the following particle diameters represent the sphere of equivalent volume: d[1,0], d[2,0], d[3,0], d[4,3], d[3,2], d(90), d(50), d(10).

C.      Identify which of the following particle diameters represent a percentile of particles: d[1,0], d[2,0], d[3,0], d[4,3], d[3,2], d(90), d(50), d(10).

D.      Identify which of the following particle size determination tech-niques involve the use of a beam of laser light: sieve analysis, laser diffraction, microscopy, focused beam reflectance mea-surement, electrozone sensing, and sedimentation.

E.       Identify which of the following particle size determination techniques can also provide information regarding the crystallin-ity of the particles: sieve analysis, laser diffraction, microscopy, focused beam reflectance measurement, electrozone sensing, and sedimentation.

19.6 Which of the following processes are NOT used for increasing the average size of powders?

A.      Crystallization

B.      Wet granulation

C.      Dry granulation

D.      Direct compression

19.7 Which of the following techniques are NOT used for the generation of an amorphous form of API?

A.      Solid dispersion

B.      Spray drying

C.      Slow solvent evaporation

D.      Extrusion spheronization

19.8 Polymorphism refers to

A.      Two forms of a crystalline solid that differ in unit cell structure

B.      Two forms of a crystalline solid that differ in the number of unit cells assembled in each dimension

C.      Two forms of a solid such that one is crystalline and the other is amorphous

D.      Two forms of a crystalline solid that differ in the solvent molecule entrapped in the crystal lattice

19.9 Which of the following methods can be used for characterizing particle shape?

A.      Microscopy

B.      Laser diffraction

C.      Sieve analysis

D.      Sedimentation

E.       Electrozone sensing

19.10 Which of the following powder characteristics affects flow?

A.      Aspect ratio

B.      BD

C.      Electrostatic charge

D.      Surface cohesiveness

E.       All of the above

F.       None of the above

Answers:

19.1 Size and shape

19.2 Mixing and granulation

19.3 A. Bulk < Tapped < True

B. Bulk and true density

C. Bulk density

D. Bulk density

E. Bulk and true density

19.4 Sticking to the tablet tooling, electrostatic charge, and flow.

19.5 A. d[2,0], d[3,2]

B. d[3,0], d[4,3]

C. d(90), d(50), d(10)

D. Laser diffraction and focused beam reflectance measurement

E. Microscopy

19.6 A.

19.7 C.

19.8 A.

19.9 A.

19.10 E.

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