Role Of Various Systems Of The Body In Homeostasis

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Chapter: Anatomy, Physiology And Health Education : Homeostasis

One or more systems are involved in homeostatic mechanism of each function. Some of the functions in which the homeostatic mechanism is well established are given below:.......




One or more systems are involved in homeostatic mechanism of each function. Some of the functions in which the homeostatic mechanism is well established are given below:


a.         The pH of the ECF has to be maintained at the critical value of 7.4. The tissues cannot survive if   it is altered. Thus, the decrease in pH (acidosis)   or increase in pH (alkalosis) affects the tissues markedly. The respiratory system, blood and kidney help in the regulation of pH.



b.      Body temperature must be maintained at 37.5°C. Increase or decrease in temperature alters the metabolic activities of the cells. The skin, respiratory system, digestive system, excretory system, skeletal muscles and nervous system are involved in maintaining the temperature within normal limits.



c.          Adequate amount of nutrients  must  be  supplied to the cells. Nutrients are essential for various activities of the cell and growth of the tissues. These substances also form the source of energy required for various activities of the cells. Nutrients must be digested, absorbed into the blood and supplied to the cells. Digestive system and circulatory system play major roles in the supply of nutrients.



d.         Adequate amount of oxygen should be made available to the cells for the metabolism of the nutrients. Simultaneously, the carbon dioxide and other metabolic end products must be removed. Respiratory system is concerned with the supply of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide. Kidneys and other excretory organs are involved in the excretion of waste products.



e.          Many hormones are essential for the metabolism of nutrients and other substances necessary for the cells. Hormones are to be synthesized and released from the endocrine glands in appropriate quantities and these hormones must act on the body cells appropriately. Otherwise, it leads to abnormal signs and symptoms.



f.           Water and electrolyte balance should be maintained optimally. Otherwise it leads to dehydration or water toxicity and alteration in the  osmolality  of the body fluids. Kidneys, skin, salivary glands and gastrointestinal tract take care of this.



g.         For all these functions, the blood, which forms the major part of internal environment, must be normal. It should contain required number of normal red blood cells and adequate amount of plasma with normal composition. Only then, it can transport the nutritive substances, respiratory gases, metabolic and other waste products.



h.         Skeletal muscles are also involved in homeostasis. This system helps the organism to move around in search of food. It also helps to protect the organism from adverse surroundings, thus preventing damage or destruction.  Central nervous system, which  includes  brain  and spinal cord also, plays an important role in homeostasis. Sensory system detects  the  state  of the body or surroundings. Brain integrates and interprets the pros and cons of these information and commands the body to act accordingly through motor system so that, the body can avoid the damage.



i.   Autonomic nervous system regulates all the vegetative functions of the body essential for homeostasis.


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