Streptokinase

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Chapter: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry : Enzymes and Protein Drugs

Estreptokinase, plasminokinase is a purified bacterial protein produced from the strains of group C β-haemolytic S. griseus.


STREPTOKINASE

 

 

Synonym

 

Estreptokinase, plasminokinase.

 

Biological Source

 

Estreptokinase, plasminokinase is a purified bacterial protein produced from the strains of group C β-haemolytic S. griseus.

 

Preparation

 

Streptokinase is a bacterial derived enzyme of serine pro-tease group. The ancestral protease activity lies within the first 230 amino-acid residues at the N-terminal part of the protein that evolves from serine protease due to the replacement of histamine at 57th amino acid by glycine. The amino terminal residue polypeptide chain shows sequence homology to serine protease. Duplication and fusion of gene generate an ancestral streptokinase gene. Streptokinase is produced by fermentation using streptococcal culture and is isolated from the culture filtrate. It is produced in the form of a lyophilized powder in sterile vials containing 2,50,000 to 7,50,000 IUs.

 

Characteristics

 

Streptokinase is a bacterial protein with half-life of 23 minutes. Its anisolylated plasminogen activator complex (APSAC) has a higher half-life of six hours.

 

Chemical Constituents

 

Streptokinase is the purified bacterial protein with about 484 amino-acid residues.

 

Uses

 

Streptokinase is the first available agent for dissolving blood clots. It binds to plasminogen in a 1:1 ratio and changes molecular conformation. Thus, the complex formed becomes an active enzyme and promotes the activity of fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin. Plasmin breaks fibrin clots. Anistreptase or the anisolylated plasminogen streptokinase activator complex (APSAC) can also be used in a similar way for degrading blood clots. Streptokinase and anistreptase are both used in the treatment of pulmonary embolism, venous, and arterial thrombosis and coronary artery thrombosis. It is also sometimes administered along with heparin to counter act a paradoxical increase in local thrombin.

 

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