Synthesis, Storage and Destruction of Histamine

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Chapter: Essential pharmacology : Histamine And Antihistaminics

Histamine is β imidazolylethylamine. It is synthesized locally from the amino acid histidine and degraded rapidly by oxidation and methylation.


SYNTHESIS, STORAGE AND DESTRUCTION

 

Histamine is β imidazolylethylamine. It is synthesized locally from the amino acid histidine and degraded rapidly by oxidation and methylation (Fig. 11.1). In mast cells, histamine (positively charged) is held by an acidic protein and heparin (negatively charged) within intracellular granules. When the granules are extruded by exocytosis, Na+ ions in e.c.f. exchange with histamine to release it free (Fig. 11.2). Increase in intracellular cAMP inhibits histamine release. Histamine is inactive orally because liver degrades all histamine that is absorbed from the intestines.




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