Toxoids

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Chapter: Essential pharmacology : Vaccines And Sera

Tetanus Toxoid : It is formaline treated exotoxin of tetanus bacilli; indicated for routine immunization in all children and adults. Two types of preparations—fluid and adsorbed are available.


TOXOIDS

 

Tetanus Toxoid

 

It is formaline treated exotoxin of tetanus bacilli; indicated for routine immunization in all children and adults. Two types of preparations—fluid and adsorbed are available. The adsorbed toxoid is superior— induces higher antibody titers and more prolonged immunity.

 

Dose: 0.5 ml, preferable route is i.m., can also be given s.c.

 

For primary immunization—Tetanus toxoid adsorbed (0.5 ml amp. 10 ml vial), 2 doses are given 4–6 weeks apart, or Tetanus toxoid fluid (1 ml amp, 10 ml vial) 3 doses at interval of 3–4 weeks. Booster dose should be given after 1 year and then every 10 years. In nonimmunized or inadequately immunized individuals the toxoid should be given after any injury likely to introduce tetanus bacilli. Concomitant administration of chloramphenicol is avoided, as it may interfere with antibody response.

 

Reactions—Local erythema, pain and induration is not uncommon. Axillary lymph nodes may enlarge. Fever, chills, malaise, aches and pains occur occasionally, especially in adults. Paresis and other neurological complications are rare.

 

Diphtheria Toxoid Adsorbed

 

It is modified diphtheria exotoxin adsorbed onto aluminium hydroxide. It is indicated in infants and children below 6 years of age. Older individuals seldom require protection against diphtheria. For primary immunization 2–3 injections of 0.5 ml i.m. are given 4–6 weeks apart, booster dose after 1 year and then at school entry. Reactions are similar to those caused by tetanus toxoid.

 

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