Types of Shampoo

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Chapter: Textbook of Cosmetic Formulation : Shampoos

Various types of shampoos are available and they are classified based on their consistency.


TYPES OF SHAMPOO

 

Various types of shampoos are available and they are classified based on their consistency.

 

 

They are as follows:

 

1.           Clear liquid shampoos

 

2.           Liquid cream shampoos

 

3.           Cream shampoos

 

4.           Gel shampoos

 

5.           Powder shampoos

 

6.           Aerosol shampoos (Foam type)

 

7.           Special shampoos



 

1.             Clear Liquid Shampoo:

 

These are clear liquid preparations that are most widely used. They are usually made by using detergent of low cloud point. Alkanolamides can also be used in these preparations. Some of these shampoos may be transparent.

 

 

Formula -       Quantity for 100 g

       

 

Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate (surfactant)         50 g

       

Lauricisopropanolamine (foam booster)       2 g

       

Perfume, color, preservative       q. s

       

Water   48 g

 

       

2.           Liquid Cream Shampoos:

 

These are called as lotion shampoos which are modification of clear liquid shampoos. Addition of opacifier such as glyceryl monostearate, glycol stearate etc., to the clear liquid shampoo yields liquid cream shampoo. Solubilising agents such as magnesium stearate is also used to dissolve the added opacifier.

 

 

Formula         -   Quantity for 100 g

 

       

Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate (surfactant)         35 g

       

Glycerylmonostearate (opacifier)        2 g

       

Magnesium stearate (stabilizer)  1 g

       

Perfume, color, preservative       q. s

       

Water   62 g

       

 

3.            Cream Shampoos:

 

These shampoos have a paste like consistency and are packed in a collapsible tube. They find great use in hair salons. They are also available in jars with wide mouth. The paste consistency is developed by addition of alkyl sulphates, also Cetyl alcohol is added, which serves as a builder.

 

 

Formula -       Quantity for 100 g

 

       

Sodium lauryl sulphate (surfactant)    38 g

       

Cetyl  alcohol (builder)     7 g

       

Perfume, color, preservative       q. s

       

Water   55 g

                             

 

4.           Gel Shampoo:

 

These are transparent and thick usually made by incorporating a gelling agent, (e.g., cellulose).There is great use in hair salons and beauty parlors. The principle ingredient is detergent which can be used either alone or in combination with soap. By altering the proportion of detergent, gel of required consistency can be obtained. Addition of methyl cellulose to clear liquid shampoo and its subsequent thickening also gives rise to gel shampoo.

 

 

Formula   -  Quantity for 100 g

 

                             

Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride  15 g

                             

Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate (surfactant)         28 g

                             

Coconut  diethanolamide  7 g

                             

Hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose        1 g

                             

Perfume, color, preservative       q. s

                             

Water                    49 g

 

 

5.          Powder Shampoos:

 

As name suggests, it is available in the form of dry powder, initially it was prepared from dry soaps, but nowadays dry synthetic detergents are used for their preparation. Powder shampoo is prepared where addition of water or other solvent reduces the activity of the components, especially in case of medicated shampoo. Nowadays, these shampoos are not used due to the difficulty experienced in their application.

 

 

Formula                Quantity for 100 g

 

                             

Sodium lauryl sulphate (surfactant)    20 g

                             

Sarcoside               5 g

                             

Sodium bicarbonate 10 g

                             

Sodium sulphate   65 g

                             

Perfume                 q. s

 

 

Another formulation called dry shampoo is also a type of powder shampoo. Initially they are applied on to the head and then removed by the brush. it doesn't involve the use of water. They are usually preferred, when the hair are greasy. This formulation usually includes adsorbents.

 

 

Formula                Quantity for 100 g

                             

Starch (adsorbent) 15 g

                             

Talc (adsorbent)    45 g

                             

Kieselgur (adsorbent)       40 g

                             

Perfume                 q. s

 

6.  Aerosol Shampoos (Foam Type):

 

They are called aerosol shampoos because they are packed in aerosol containers. Their formulation, preparation and packing is complicated as an additional propellant is included. The propellant added must be compatible and should not reduce the activity of shampooing ingredients. The container opening is provided with a valve. Shampoo comes out as foam when the valve is pressed. Hence also called as foam type shampoo.

 

 

Formula         Quantity for 100 g

 

       

Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate (surfactant)         60 g

       

Coconut  diethanolamide  2 g

       

Propellant      10 g

       

Perfume, color, preservative       q. s

       

Water   28 g

 

 

7.           Special Shampoos:

 

These are the shampoos which are meant for special purpose. They are

 

 

(a)            Medicated Shampoo: These shampoos contain medicinal agents. These agents treat the disorders of the scalp or hair. Examples of medicated shampoos are: Anti-lice shampoo, Anti-dandruff shampoo, Anti-baldness shampoo etc,.

 

The medicinal agent added should not irritate the sebaceous glands. It should not sensitize the scalp. The degree of itching and scaling should also be reduced. Among all, anti dandruff type of medicated shampoo is most widely used. Formula for which is given below:

 

 

Formula         Quantity for 100 g

 

            

Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate (surfactant)         60 g

            

Thymol (anti dandruff)    0.1 g

            

Camphor (counter irritant)        0.1 g

            

Perfume, color, preservative       q. s

            

Water   38.8 g

 

 

(b)            Conditioner Shampoos:

 

These shampoos serve for hair conditioning. Initially they clean the hair (and scalp) and keep them in smooth and lustrous condition. They also prevent sticking of hairs. Conditioner shampoo nowadays is widely used by both men and women. Most of the conditioners are made from Quaternary ammonium compounds. These compounds have the property of reducing electric charges between the hair, as a result hair become lustrous easily manageable. These compounds can also exhibit a bactericidal effect.

 

 

Formula         Quantity for 100 g

 

            

Stearyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride 5.5g

            

Ethylene glycol monostearate    2 g

            

Cetyl alcohol  2.5 g

            

Perfume, preservative       q. s

            

Water   90 g

 

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