Visceral Leishmaniasis ( Kala Azar)

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Chapter: Pharmaceutical Microbiology : Protozoa

Like cutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis begins with the formation of a nodule at the site of inoculation but this lesion rarely ulcerates and usually disappears in a few weeks.


VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS ( KALA AZAR)

 

Like cutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis begins with the formation of a nodule at the site of inoculation but this lesion rarely ulcerates and usually disappears in a few weeks. However, symptoms and signs of systemic disease such as undulating fever, malaise, diarrhoea, organ enlargement and anaemia subsequently develop. In more serious cases of visceral leishmaniasis the parasites, which can resist the internal body temperature, invade internal organs (liver, spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes), where they occupy the reticuloendothelial cells. The pathogenic mechanisms of the disease are not fully understood, but enlargement occurs in those organs that exhibit marked cellular alteration such as hyperplasia. Parasitized macrophages replace tissue in the bone marrow. Patients with advanced disease are prone to superinfection with other organisms which are predominantly bacterial.

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