Pharmaceutical Microbiology

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Pharmaceutical Microbiology




Part 1 - Biology of microorganisms



Chapter 1: Introduction to pharmaceutical microbiology


=> Introduction to pharmaceutical microbiology

Chapter 2: Fundamental features of microbiology


=> Introduction - Fundamental features of microbiology
=> Naming of microorganisms
=> Microbial metabolism
=> Microbial cultivation
=> Culture media
=> Cultivation methods - Microbial Cultivation
=> Planktonic and sessile (biofilm) growth - Microbial Cultivation
=> Enumeration of microorganisms
=> Microbial genetics
=> Bacteria - Microbial Genetics
=> Eukaryotes - Microbial Genetics
=> Genetic Variation and Gene Expression - Microbial Genetics
=> Pharmaceutical Importance Of The Major Categories Of Microorganisms
=> Preservation Of Microorganisms

Chapter 3: Bacteria


=> Bacteria
=> Bacterial Ultrastructure
=> Cellular Components - Bacterial Ultrastructure
=> Cell Wall - Bacteria
=> Biofilms
=> Bacterial sporulation
=> Bacterial Ultrastructure
=> Bacterial Reproduction And Growth Kinetics
=> Population Growth of Bacteria
=> Bacterial Growth On Different Media
=> Growth And Genetic Exchange of Bacteria
=> Transformation - Bacterial Reproduction
=> Transduction - Bacterial Reproduction
=> Conjugation - Bacterial Reproduction
=> Environmental Factors That Influence Growth And Survival of Bacteria
=> Physicochemical Factors That Affect Growth And Survival Of Bacteria
=> Nutrition And Growth - Factors Affecting The Growth Of Bacteria
=> Detection, Identification And Characterization Of Organisms Of Pharmaceutical And Medical Significance
=> Culture Techniques - Bacteria
=> Culture Techniques - Types
=> Microscopy Of Organisms Of Pharmaceutical And Medical Significance
=> Biochemical Testing And Rapid Identification Of Organisms Of Pharmaceutical And Medical Significance
=> Molecular Approaches To Identification of Bacterial Species
=> Pharmaceutically And Medically Relevant Microorganisms

Chapter 4: Fungi


=> Fungi
=> Structure Of The Fungal Cell
=> Medical significance of fungi
=> Antifungal Therapy
=> Medically Important Fungal Pathogens Of Humans
=> Emerging Fungal Pathogens
=> Antibiotic Production By Fungi

Chapter 5: Viruses


=> Viruses
=> General Structure Of Viruses
=> Virus-Host Cell Interactions
=> HIV - Virus-Host Cell Interactions
=> Tumour Viruses - Virus-Host Cell Interactions
=> Multiplication Of Human Viruses
=> Cultivation Of Human Viruses
=> Cell Culture - Types Of Cultivation Of Human Viruses
=> The Chick Embryo - Types Of Cultivation Of Human Viruses
=> Animal Inoculation - Types Of Cultivation Of Human Viruses
=> Antiviral chemotherapy- Control Of Viruses
=> Vaccination
=> Viricidal Effects Of Chemical And Physical Agents On Viruses
=> Control Of Viruses In Pharmaceutical Products
=> Viruses And Gene Therapy
=> Bacteriophages - Viruses As Antimicrobials
=> Use Of Bacteriophages To Treat Bacterial Infection
=> Epidemiological Uses And Diagnosis - Viruses
=> Prions

Chapter 6: Protozoa


=> Protozoa
=> Physiology Of Parasitic Protozoa
=> Blood And Tissue Parasites
=> Malaria
=> Life Cycle of Plasmodia (Malarial causative)
=> Trypanosomatids
=> American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease)
=> African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness)
=> Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis
=> Visceral Leishmaniasis ( Kala Azar)
=> Toxoplasma Gondii
=> Intestinal Parasites
=> Giardia lamblia (syn. intestinalis, duodenalis) - Intestinal Parasites
=> Entamoeba histolytica - Intestinal Parasites
=> Cryptosporidium parvum - Intestinal Parasites
=> Trichomonas And Free living Amoebas
=> Host response to infection
=> Immune Response - Host Response To Infection
=> Immune Pathology - Host Response To Infection
=> Immune Evasion - Host Response To Infection
=> Detection Of Parasites
=> Methods of detection Of Parasites
=> Antibody Based Technologies - Methods Of Detection Of Parasites
=> DNA Based Technologies - Methods Of Detection Of Parasites
=> Alternative Methods - Methods Of Detection Of Parasites
=> Analysis Of Samples
=> Control Of Protozoan Parasites
=> Chemotherapy - Control Of Protozoan Parasites
=> Other Approaches To Control - Control Of Protozoan Parasites

Part 2 - Pathogens and host responses



Chapter 7: Principles Of Microbial Pathogenicity And Epidemiology


=> Principles Of Microbial Pathogenicity And Epidemiology
=> The Human Microbiome
=> Skin - Portals Of Entry
=> Consolidation
=> Nutrient Acquisition - Consolidation
=> Biofilms - Consolidation
=> Resistance To Host Defences - Consolidation
=> Manifestation Of Disease
=> Damage To Tissues
=> Recovery From Infection: Exit Of Microorganisms
=> Epidemiology Of Infectious Disease

Chapter 8: Microbial Biofilms: Consequences For Health


=> Microbial Biofilms: Consequences For Health
=> Biofilms
=> Biofilms In Nature And The Consequences To Health
=> Biofilms In The Food Industry
=> Biofilms In Hospitals
=> Biofilms And Medical Devices
=> Tolerance Of Biofilms To Antimicrobials
=> Mechanisms Of Biofilm Tolerance
=> Treatment Of Chronic Biofilm Infections
=> A New Biofilm Assay
=> Better Use Of Existing Antimicrobials
=> Next-Generation Antimicrobials
=> Conceptual Evaluation Of Antibiotics
=> Biofilm Assays

Chapter 9: Immunology


=> Immunology
=> Immunology
=> Definitions And Outline Structure Of The Immune System
=> Cells Of The Immune System
=> The Innate Immune System
=> The Humoral Adaptive Immune System
=> B-Lymphocyte Antigens - The Humoral Adaptive Immune System
=> Basic Structure Of Antibody Molecule
=> Clonal Selection And Expansion
=> Humoral Immune Effector Functions
=> Opsonization Of Antigen
=> Mucosal Immunity
=> Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity (ADCC)
=> Immediate Hypersensitivity
=> Neonatal Immunity
=> Activation Of The Classical Complement Pathway
=> Cell-Mediated Adaptive Immune System
=> T-Lymphocyte Antigen Recognition And MHC Proteins
=> Processing Of Proteins To Allow Peptide Presentation By MHC Molecules
=> More On T-Lymphocyte Subpopulations
=> Effector T-Helper Cell Subtypes
=> Transplantation Rejection - Clinical Perspective
=> Hypersensitivity

Chapter 10: Vaccination And Immunization


=> Vaccination And Immunization
=> Spread Of Infection
=> Objectives Of A Vaccine/Immunization Programme
=> Classes of immunity
=> Passive (Artificially Acquired) Immunity - Types of immunity
=> Active (Artificially Acquired) Immunity
=> Types Of Vaccine
=> Live Vaccines - Types Of Vaccine
=> Killed And Component Vaccines - Types Of Vaccine
=> DNA Vaccines - Types Of Vaccine
=> Routine Immunization Against Infectious Disease - Poliomyelitis Vaccination
=> Measles, Mumps And Rubella Vaccination (MMR)
=> Tuberculosis
=> Diphtheria, Tetanus And A Cellular Pertussis (DTaP) Immunization
=> Immunization Against Bacteria Associated With Meningitis
=> Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination
=> The UK Routine Childhood Immunization Programme
=> Immunization Of Special Risk Groups

Part 3 - Prescribing therapeutics



Chapter 11: Antibiotics And Synthetic Antimicrobial Agents: Their Properties And Uses


=> Antibiotic Development, Past And Present
=> Antibiotic Usage
=> β -Lactam Antibiotics
=> Penicillins
=> Cephalosporins
=> β-Lactamase inhibitors
=> Carbapenems and aztreonam
=> Hypersensitivity
=> Tetracyclines
=> Macrolides
=> Sulphonamides, Trimethoprim And Related Drugs
=> Quinolones
=> Aminoglycosides
=> Glycopeptides
=> Antitubercular Antibiotics
=> Newer antibiotics for MRSA and other Gram - positive cocci infections
=> Miscellaneous Antibacterial Antibiotics
=> Antifungal Antibiotics
=> Antiviral Drugs

Chapter 12: Mechanisms of action of antibiotics and synthetic anti-infective agents


=> Introduction - Mechanisms of action of antibiotics and synthetic anti-infective agents
=> Peptidoglycan biosynthesis in bacteria and its inhibition
=> β-Lactams-penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and monobactams
=> β-Lactamase Inhibitors-Clavulanic Acid, Sulbactam And Tazobactam
=> Mycolic Acid And Arabinogalactan Biosynthesis In Mycobacteria
=> Echinocandins-Caspofungin, Anidulafungin And Micafungin
=> Protein synthesis and its selective inhibition
=> Chromosome Function And Replication - Basis For The Selective Inhibition Of Chromosome Replication And Function
=> Fluoroquinolones - Chromosome Function And Replication
=> Rifampicin And Rifabutin - Chromosome Function And Replication
=> 5- Fluorocytosine - Chromosome Function And Replication
=> Folate Antagonists
=> The Cytoplasmic Membrane - Mechanisms of action of antibiotics and synthetic anti-infective agents

Chapter 13: Bacterial Resistance To Antibiotics


=> Bacterial Resistance To Antibiotics - Introduction
=> Origins Of Resistance - Bacterial Resistance To Antibiotics
=> Mechanisms Of Resistance - Bacterial Resistance To Antibiotics
=> Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics - Bacterial Resistance To Antibiotics
=> Altered Penicillin-Binding Proteins And Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
=> Resistance To Glycopeptide Antibiotics
=> Resistance To Aminoglycoside Antibiotics
=> Resistance To Other Antibiotics
=> Multiple Drug Resistance
=> Clinical Resistance-Mic Values, Breakpoints, Phenotype And Outcome

Chapter 14: Clinical Uses Of Antimicrobial Drugs


=> Clinical Uses Of Antimicrobial Drugs - Introduction
=> Principles Of Use Of Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Clinical Uses Of Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Respiratory Tract Infections - Clinical Uses Of Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Urinary Tract Infections - Clinical Uses Of Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Gastrointestinal Infections - Clinical Uses Of Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Skin And Soft Tissue Infections - Clinical Uses Of Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Central Nervous System Infections - Clinical Uses Of Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Fungal Infections - Clinical Uses Of Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Medical Device Associated Infections - Clinical Uses Of Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Antibiotic Policies
=> The Antimicrobial Stewardship Team

Chapter 15: Antibiotic Prescribing And Antibiotic Stewardship


=> Antibiotic Prescribing And Antibiotic Stewardship - The Need For Antimicrobial Stewardship
=> Components Of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programmes
=> The Effectiveness Of Stewardship Strategies
=> Monitoring Of Antibiotic Resistance
=> The Impact On Resistance Of Antibiotic Availability To The Public

Chapter 16: Public Health Microbiology: Infection Prevention And Control


=> Public Health Microbiology: Infection Prevention And Control - Introduction
=> Healthcare-Associated Infections-Definitions And Range
=> Microorganisms That Cause HCAI
=> Scale Of The HCAI Problem-Prevalence And Incidence
=> Responsibility For HCAI Prevention And Control
=> Keys To Infection Prevention And Control
=> Zero Tolerance And The Principles Of Infection Management
=> Professional Support For Infection Prevention And Control

Part 4 - Contamination and infection control



Chapter 17: Microbial Spoilage, Infection Risk And Contamination Control


=> Microbial Spoilage, Infection Risk And Contamination Control - Introduction
=> Spoilage-Chemical And Physicochemical Deterioration Of Pharmaceuticals
=> Pharmaceutical Ingredients Susceptible To Microbial Attack
=> Observable Effects Of Microbial Attack On Pharmaceutical Products
=> Factors Affecting Microbial Spoilage Of Pharmaceutical Products
=> Hazard To Health - Microbial Spoilage
=> Sources And Control Of Contamination
=> The Extent Of Microbial Contamination
=> Factors Determining The Outcome Of A Medicament-Borne Infection
=> Preservation Of Medicines Using Antimicrobial Agents: Basic Principles
=> Effect Of Preservative Concentration, Temperature And Size Of Inoculum
=> Factors Affecting The Availability Of Preservatives
=> Quality Assurance And The Control Of Microbial Risk In Medicines
=> Quality Assurance In Formulation Design And Development
=> Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice (GPMP)
=> Quality Control Procedures
=> Postmarket Surveillance

Chapter 18: Laboratory Evaluation Of Antimicrobial Agents


=> Laboratory Evaluation Of Antimicrobial Agents - Introduction
=> Laboratory Evaluation Of Antimicrobial Agents - Definitions
=> Factors Affecting The Antimicrobial Activity Of Disinfectants
=> Evaluation Of Liquid Disinfectants
=> Evaluation Of Solid Disinfectants
=> Evaluation Of Air Disinfectants
=> Evaluation Of Preservatives
=> Rapid Evaluation Procedures
=> Evaluation Of Potential Chemotherapeutic Antimicrobials
=> Tests For Biofilm Susceptibility

Chapter 19: Chemical Disinfectants, Antiseptics And Preservatives


=> Chemical Disinfectants, Antiseptics And Preservatives - Introduction
=> European Union Regulation for Chemical Disinfectants, Antiseptics And Preservatives
=> Definitions - Chemical Disinfectants, Antiseptics And Preservatives
=> Economic Aspects - Chemical Disinfectants, Antiseptics And Preservatives
=> Factors Affecting Choice Of Antimicrobial Agent
=> Types Of Compound - Chemical Disinfectants, Antiseptics And Preservatives
=> Disinfection Policies

Chapter 20: Non-Antibiotic Antimicrobial Agents: Mode Of Action And Resistance


=> Non-Antibiotic Antimicrobial Agents: Mode Of Action And Resistance - Introduction
=> Mechanisms Of Action - Non-Antibiotic Antimicrobial Agents
=> Enhancing Activity of Non-Antibiotic Antimicrobial Agents
=> Mechanisms Of Resistance To Biocides
=> Viricidal Activity Of Biocides
=> Biocides And Protozoa
=> Biocides And Fungi
=> Inactivation Of Prions

Chapter 21: Sterilization Procedures And Sterility Assurance


=> Sterilization Procedures And Sterility Assurance - Introduction
=> Sensitivity Of Microorganisms
=> Sterilization Methods
=> Heat Sterilization - Sterilization Methods
=> Gaseous Sterilization - Sterilization Methods
=> Radiation Sterilization - Sterilization Methods
=> Filtration Sterilization - Sterilization Methods
=> New Sterilization Technologies - Sterilization Methods
=> Sterilization Control And Sterility
=> Bioburden Determinations
=> Environmental Monitoring
=> Validation And In-Process Monitoring Of Sterilization Procedures
=> Sterility Testing

Part 5 - Pharmaceutical production



Chapter 22: Sterile Pharmaceutical Products


=> Sterile Pharmaceutical Products - Introduction
=> Types Of Sterile Product
=> Injections - Types Of Sterile Product
=> Non-Injectable Sterile Fluids - Types Of Sterile Product
=> Ophthalmic Preparations - Types Of Sterile Product
=> Dressings - Types Of Sterile Product
=> Implants
=> Absorbable Haemostats - Types Of Sterile Product
=> Surgical Ligatures And Sutures
=> Instruments And Equipments
=> Sterilization Considerations
=> Quality Control And Quality Assurance

Chapter 23: Principles Of Good Manufacturing Practice


=> Principles Of Good Manufacturing Practice - Introduction
=> Principles Of Good Manufacturing Practice - Definitions
=> Control Of Microbial Contamination During Manufacture: General Aspects
=> Manufacture Of Sterile Products
=> Aseptic Areas
=> Guide To Good Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Practice

Chapter 24: The Manufacture And Quality Control Of Immunological Products


=> The Manufacture And Quality Control Of Immunological Products - Introduction
=> Vaccines
=> The Seed Lot System
=> Production Of The Bacteria And The Cellular Components Of Bacterial Vaccines
=> Fermentation
=> Production Of The Viruses And The Components Of Viral Vaccines
=> Blending
=> Filling And Drying
=> Quality Control
=> In Vivo Diagnostics
=> Immune Sera
=> Human Immunoglobulins
=> Monoclonal Antibodies

Chapter 25: Recombinant DNA Technology


=> Recombinant DNA Technology - Introduction: Biotechnology In Pharmaceutical Sciences
=> Recombinant DNA Technology - Enabling Techniques
=> Cutting And Joining DNA Molecules - Enabling Techniques
=> Cloning Vectors - Enabling Techniques
=> Introduction Of Vector Into Hosts
=> Construction Of Genomic Libraries
=> Screening Of Genomic Libraries
=> Optimizing Expression Of Recombinant Genes
=> Amplifying DNA: The Polymerase Chain Reaction
=> Biotechnology In The Pharmaceutical Industry
=> Recombinant Human Insulin
=> Recombinant Somatostatin
=> Recombinant Somatotropin
=> Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine
=> Recombinant Influenza Virus Vaccines
=> Production Of Recombinant Antibiotics
=> New Diagnostics Using Recombinant DNA Technology
=> Diagnosis Of Infectious Diseases
=> Diagnosis Of Genetic Disorders

Part 6 - Current trends and new directions



Chapter 26: The Wider Contribution Of Microbiology To The Pharmaceutical Sciences


=> The Wider Contribution Of Microbiology To The Pharmaceutical Sciences - Introduction
=> Pharmaceuticals Produced By Microorganisms
=> Iron-Chelating Agents
=> Enzymes
=> Applications Of Microorganisms In The Partial Synthesis Of Pharmaceuticals
=> Applications Of Microorganisms In The Discovery Of Pharmaceuticals
=> Use Of Microorganisms And Their Products In Assays
=> Phenylketonuria Testing
=> Carcinogen And Mutagen Testing
=> Use Of Microbial Enzymes In Sterility Testing
=> Immobilized Enzyme Technology
=> Use Of Microorganisms As Models Of Mammalian Drug Metabolism
=> Microorganisms As Therapy
=> Insecticides
=> Bioterrorism
=> Bioterrorism

Chapter 27: Alternative Strategies For Antimicrobial Therapy


=> Alternative Strategies For Antimicrobial Therapy - Introduction
=> Essential Oils
=> Honey Therapy
=> Garlic
=> Probiotics
=> Maggot Therapy
=> Photodynamic Therapy (Photoactivated Disinfection)
=> Vaccines And Immunotherapies
=> Silver
=> Bacteriophage Therapy
=> Bacteriophage Lysins

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