Killed and Component Vaccines

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Chapter: Pharmaceutical Microbiology : Vaccination And Immunization

Since these vaccines are unable to evoke a natural infection profile with respect to the release of antigen, they must be administered on a number of occasions.


KILLED AND COMPONENT VACCINES

 

Since these vaccines are unable to evoke a natural infection profile with respect to the release of antigen, they must be administered on a number of occasions. Immunity may not reach optimal levels until the course of immunization is complete and, with the exception of toxin-dominated diseases such as diphtheria and tetanus where the immunogen is a toxoid, are unlikely to match the performance of a live vaccine. The specificity of the immune response generated in the patient may initially be low. This is particularly the case when the vaccine is composed of a relatively crude cocktail of killed cells, where the immune response is directed only partially towards antigenic components of the pathogen. This increases the possibility of adverse reactions in the patient. Release profiles of these immunogens can be improved through their formulation with adjuvants, and the immunogenicity of certain purified bacterial components such as polysaccharides can be improved by their conjugation to a carrier.

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