Pharmacognosy

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Pharmacognosy




PART A - Introduction to Pharmacognosy



Chapter 1: History, Definition and Scope of Pharmacognosy


=> Meaning of Pharmacognosy
=> Origin of Pharmacognosy
=> History of Pharmacognosy
=> Scope of Pharmacognosy
=> Future of Pharmacognosy
=> Pharmacognostical Scheme

Chapter 2: Alternative System of Medicine


=> Alternative System of Medicine
=> Traditional Chinese Medicine System
=> Indian Systems of Medicine
=> Siddha System of Medicine
=> Unani System of Medicine
=> Homeopathic System of Medicine
=> Aromatherapy
=> Bach Flower Remedies
=> Tibetan System of Medicine

Chapter 3: Classification of Drugs of Natural Origin


=> Classification of Drugs of Natural Origin
=> Classification of Crude Drugs

PART B - Pharmaceutical Botany



Chapter 4: Morphology of Different Parts of Medicinal Plant


=> Morphology of Different Parts of Medicinal Plant
=> Study of Different Tissue Systems
=> Cell Contents
=> Cell Division
=> Morphological Study

Chapter 5: Study of Different Families


=> Study of Different Families
=> Apocynaceae
=> Compositae
=> Convolulaceae
=> Cruciferae
=> Gramineae
=> Labiatae
=> Leguminosae
=> Liliaceae
=> Papaveraceae
=> Rubiaceae
=> Scrophulariaceae
=> Solanaceae
=> Umbelliferae

PART C - Cultivation, Collection, Production and Utilization of Herbal Drugs



Chapter 6: Cultivation, Collection and Processing of Herbal Drugs


=> Cultivation, Collection and Processing of Herbal Drugs
=> Soils, Seeds and Propagation Material
=> Good Agricultural Practices
=> Factors Affecting Cultivation
=> Plant Hormones and Growth Regulators
=> Collection of Crude Drugs
=> Harvesting of Crude Drugs
=> Drying of Crude Drugs
=> Garbling (Dressing)
=> Packing of Crude Drugs
=> Storage of Crude Drugs
=> Quality Management
=> Documentation

Chapter 7: Indian Trade in Medicine and Aromatic Plants


=> Indian Trade in Medicine and Aromatic Plants
=> Indian Herbal Trade in World Scenario
=> Medicinal Plant-Based Industries In Indigenous System Of Medicine
=> Export Potential of Indian Phyto-Pharmaceutical Products
=> Indian Medicinal Plants Used in Cosmetic and Aromatherapy
=> Indian Medicinal Plants in Crude Form
=> Spices
=> Export of Spices India

Chapter 8: Utilization of Aromatic Plants And Derived Products


=> Utilization of Aromatic Plants and Derived Products
=> Impact of Industrialization
=> Toxocity of Essential Oils
=> Utilization of Aromatic Plants

Chapter 9: Role of Medicinal Plants on National Economy


=> Role of Medicinal Plants on National Economy
=> Economic Growth Potential in Natural Health and Cosmetic Products
=> Future Economic Growth
=> Development of Herbal Medicinal Industry
=> Contribution to Economy of the People

PART D - Analytical Pharmacognosy



Chapter 10: Drug Adulteration


=> Drug Adulteration
=> Adulteration

Chapter 11: Evaluation of Crude Drugs


=> Evaluation of Crude Drugs
=> Organoleptic Evaluation
=> Microscopical Evaluation
=> Chemical Evaluation
=> Physical Evaluation
=> Biological Evaluation

Chapter 12: Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs


=> Biological Screening of Herbal Drugs
=> Need for Phyto-Pharmacological Evaluation
=> New Strategies for Evaluating Natural Products
=> Errors in Screening Procedures
=> Screening Methods for Analgesic Agents
=> Screening Methods for Antidiabetic Agents
=> Evaluation of Antidiarrhoeal Agents
=> Screening Methods for Antifertility Agents
=> Screening Methods for Antiinflammatory Agents
=> Screening Methods for Antipyretic Agents
=> Screening Methods for Antiulcer Agents
=> Screening Methods for Diuretic Agents
=> Screening Methods for Hepatoprotective Agents
=> Screening Methods for Wound-Healing Agents

PART E - Biogenesis of Phytopharmaceuticals



Chapter 13: General Biosynthetic Pathways of Secondary Metabolites


=> General Biosynthetic Pathways of Secondary Metabolites
=> The Building Blocks
=> Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates
=> Biosynthesis of Glycosides
=> Biosynthesis of Alkaloids
=> Biosynthesis of Phenolic Compounds

PART F - Pharmacognostical Study of Crude Drugs



Chapter 14: Drugs Containing Carbohydrates and Derived Products


=> Drugs Containing Carbohydrates and Derived Products
=> Classification of Carbohydrates
=> Tests for Carbohydrates
=> Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates
=> Acacia Gum
=> Guar Gum
=> Honey
=> Tragacanth
=> Sodium Alginate
=> Pectin
=> Karaya Gum
=> Bael
=> Agar
=> Manna
=> Xanthan Gum
=> Ghatti Gum
=> Ispaghula
=> Tamarind
=> Chitin
=> Carrageenan
=> Locust Bean Gum
=> Starch

Chapter 15: Drugs Containing Alkaloids


=> Drugs Containing Alkaloids
=> Definition - Drugs Containing Alkaloids
=> History - Drugs Containing Alkaloids
=> Classification - Drugs Containing Alkaloids
=> Occurrence in Nature
=> Properties
=> Extraction
=> Chemical Tests
=> Tropane Alkaloids
=> Belladonna
=> Datura Herb
=> Stramonium
=> Hyoscyamus
=> Coca Leaves
=> Duboisia
=> Indole Alkaloids
=> Ergot
=> Rauwolfia
=> Nux Vomica
=> Vinca
=> Physostigma
=> Pyridine And Piperidine Alkaloids
=> Lobelia
=> Tobacco
=> Areca Nuts
=> Imidazole Alkaloids
=> Pilocarpus
=> Quinoline Alkaloids
=> Cinchona
=> Isoquinoline Alkaloids
=> Ipecac
=> Opium
=> Curare
=> Steroidal Alkaloids
=> Veratrum
=> Kurchi Bark
=> Ashwagandha
=> Purine Alkaloids
=> Coffee
=> Tea
=> Cocoa
=> Diterpene Alkaloids
=> Aconite
=> Amino Alkaloids
=> Ephedra
=> Colchicum

Chapter 16: Drugs Containing Glycosides


=> Drugs Containing Glycosides
=> Classification - Glycosides
=> Distribution of Glycosides
=> Chemical Tests of Glycosides
=> Isolation - Drugs Containing Glycosides
=> Anthracene Glycosides
=> Senna Leaf
=> Aloe
=> Rhubarb
=> Cascara Bark
=> Sterol or Cardiac Glycosides
=> Digitalis Leaves
=> Digitalis Lanata
=> Thevetia
=> Squill
=> Red Squill
=> Indian Squill
=> Strophanthus
=> Oleander
=> Saponin Glycosides
=> Dioscorea
=> Liquorice
=> Shatavari
=> Brahmi
=> Ginseng
=> Senega
=> Quillaia
=> Gokhru
=> Sarsaparilla
=> Cyanogenic Glycosides
=> Almond
=> Wild Cherry Bark
=> Isothiocynate Glycosides
=> Mustard
=> Flavone Glycosides
=> Ginkgo
=> Coumarin and Furanocoumarin Glycosides
=> Visnaga
=> Ammi
=> Psoralea
=> Vanilla - Aldehyde Glycosides
=> Phenol Glycosides - Bearberry
=> Steroidal Glycosides - Solanum
=> Bitter And Miscellaneous Glycosides
=> Gentian
=> Picrorhiza
=> Chirata
=> Quassia
=> Kalmegh

Chapter 17: Drugs Containing Volatile Oils


=> Drugs Containing Volatile Oils
=> Classification of Volatile Oils
=> Extraction of Volatile Oils
=> Terpenoids
=> Classification of Terpenoids
=> Evaluation of Volatile Oils
=> Chemical Tests for Volatile Oils
=> Storage of Volatile Oils
=> Pharmaceutical Applications
=> Volatile Oils Containing Hydrocarbons
=> Turpentine Oil
=> Volatile Oils Containing Alcohols
=> Peppermint
=> Pudina
=> Sandalwood Oil
=> Volatile Oils Containing Aldehydes
=> Lemongrass Oil
=> Lemon Peel
=> Bitter Orange Peel
=> Cinnamon
=> Cassia Bark
=> Citronella Oil
=> Saffron
=> Volatile Oils Containing Ketones
=> Camphor
=> Caraway
=> Coriander
=> Dill
=> Fennel
=> Jatamansi
=> Anise
=> Cummin/Cumin
=> Volatile Oil Containing Phenol
=> Ajowan
=> Tulsi
=> Clove
=> Volatile Oil Containing Ether
=> Nutmeg
=> Calamus
=> Volatile Oil Containing Oxides
=> Chenopodium Oil
=> Eucalyptus Oil
=> Cardamom
=> Volatile Oil Containing Ester
=> Garlic
=> Rosemary Oil
=> Gaultheria Oil
=> Valerian

Chapter 18: Drugs Containing Resins


=> Drugs Containing Resins
=> Classification - Drugs Containing Resins
=> Chemical Composition - Drugs Containing Resins
=> Isolation - Drugs Containing Resins
=> Asafoetida
=> Balsam of Peru
=> Balsam Of Tolu
=> Cannabis
=> Capsicum
=> Colocynth
=> Colophony
=> Ginger
=> Guggul
=> Ipomoea
=> Jalap
=> Kaladana
=> Male Fern
=> Myrrh
=> Podophyllum
=> Indian Podophyllum
=> Siam Benzoin
=> Sumatra Benzoin
=> Storex
=> Turmeric

Chapter 19: Drugs Containing Lipids


=> Drugs Containing Lipids
=> Fixed Oils And Fats
=> Waxes
=> Almond Oil
=> Arachis Oil
=> Castor Oil
=> Chaulmoogra Oil
=> Coconut Oil
=> Cod Liver Oil
=> Corn Oil
=> Cottonseed Oil
=> Linseed Oil
=> Mustard Oil
=> Olive Oil
=> Rice Bran Oil
=> Safflower Oil
=> Sesame Oil
=> Shark Liver Oil
=> Beeswax
=> Carnauba Wax
=> Cocoa Butter
=> Kokum
=> Lanolin
=> Lard

Chapter 20: Drugs Containing Tannins


=> Drugs Containing Tannins
=> Classification - Drugs Containing Tannins
=> Characteristics of Tannins
=> Biosynthesis of Tannins
=> Chemical Tests - For Tannins
=> Isolation of Tannins
=> Medicinal Properties and Uses of Tannins
=> Hydrolysable Tannins - Myrobalan
=> Bahera
=> Arjuna
=> Amla
=> Nutgalls
=> Tannic Acid
=> Condensed Tannins - Ashoka
=> Pale Catechu
=> Black Catechu
=> Pterocarpus

Chapter 21: Enzymes and Protein Drugs


=> Enzymes and Protein Drugs
=> Diastase
=> Pepsin
=> Pancreatin
=> Trypsin
=> Hyaluronidase
=> Urokinase
=> Streptokinase
=> Bromelin
=> Serratiopeptidase
=> Papain
=> Proteins
=> Malt Extract
=> Gelatin
=> Casein
=> Collagen
=> Ficin

Chapter 22: Fibres, Sutures and Surgical Dressings


=> Fibres, Sutures and Surgical Dressings - Introduction
=> Fibres, Sutures and Surgical Dressings - History
=> Classification and Properties of Fibres
=> Cotton - Vegetable Fibres
=> Jute
=> Flax
=> Hemp
=> Silk - Animal Fibres
=> Wool
=> Viscose
=> Alginate Fibres
=> Nylon
=> Terylene (Dacron)
=> Orlon
=> Surgical Dressings
=> Sutures and Ligatures

Chapter 23: Drugs of Mineral Origin


=> Drugs of Mineral Origin - Introduction
=> Kaolin
=> Asbestos
=> Talc
=> Bentonite
=> Fullerís Earth

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