Cottonseed Oil

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Chapter: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry : Drugs Containing Lipids

Cottonseed oil is a refined fixed oil obtained by expression of seeds of Gossypium harbaceum Linn, belonging to family Malvaceae, in hydraulic or other presses.


COTTONSEED OIL

 

 

Biological Source

 

Cottonseed oil is a refined fixed oil obtained by expression of seeds of Gossypium harbaceum Linn, belonging to family Malvaceae, in hydraulic or other presses.

 

Preparation

 

The cottonseed, after ginning off the fibres, is decorticated and cleaned of hulls. The kernels are steamed and pressed at about 1500 lb pressure to yield about 30% of oil which is turbid and reddish in colour. It is refined by filtering, decolourizing, and ‘winter chilling’, which removes the stearin.

 

Characteristics

 

The crude oil is amber to deep red or black in colour with a characteristic odour, sp. gr. 0.92, saponification value 192–200, iodine value 100–115, and unsaponifiable matter 0.6–2.0%. Refined Cottonseed oil is pale yellow in colour with a bland nutty taste and nearly odourless. The oil is a semidrying substance. On cooling a sediment of olein or liquid glycerides separates out which may be collected by the filtration in the cooled condition. When used to adulterate other oils its presence may be detected by the test for semidrying. Cottonseed oil is graded on the basis of its acidity; refining loses flavour. Refined oil is graded according to the colour, odour, and flavour.

 


                              Gossypium harbaceum

 

Chemical Constituents

 

The important constituents of the glycerides of cotton-seed oil are linoleic (45–50%), oleic (23–29%), palmitic (20–33%), myristic (1.5–3.5%), stearic (1.1–2.7%), and arachidic acids (1.0%). The glycerides present are palmito-oleolinoleins (35–40%), palmitodioleins (20%), and trioleo-or lineo-disaturated (12–13%). The unsaponifiable fraction contains β-sitosterol, ergosterol, vitamin E, and tocopherols. The phosphatides present are lecithin (29%) and cephalins (71%). The minor constituents present in the oil are free fatty acids (0.3–5.6%), gossypol (0.05%), raffinose, pentosans, resins, wax, proteoses, peptones, phospholipids, inosite phosphates, phytosteroline, xanthophyll, chlorophyll, and mucilage substances.

 

Cottonseed cake contains about 0.6% of a toxic principle, gossypol, which occurs in secretory cavities in all parts of the plant. It is present in cold-pressed oil and can be removed by treatment with alkalies.

 


 

Uses

 

Cottonseed oil is used as a solvent for injections and for edible purposes. The oil possesses emollient properties and is used in liniments, in several pharmaceutical preparations, as a substitute of olive oil and in large doses as lubricant cathartic. Low-grade oil is used in the manufacture of soaps, lubricants, sulphonated oils, and protective coatings.

 

Marketed Products

 

It is one of the ingredients of the preparation known as J.P. Massaj oil (Jamuna Pharma).

 

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