Pharmacology

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Pharmacology






GENERAL PHARMACOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES



Chapter 1: Introduction And Routes Of Administration


=> Introduction of Pharmacology
=> Drug Nomenclature
=> Orphan Drugs
=> Routes of Drug Administration
=> Transdermal Therapeutic Systems

Chapter 2: Pharmacokinetics: Membrane Transport, Absorption And Distribution Of Drugs


=> Pharmacokinetics
=> Absorption
=> Bioavailability
=> Distribution
=> Plasma protein binding
=> Tissue storage

Chapter 3: Pharmacokinetics: Metabolism Excretion Of Drugs, Kinetics Of Elimination


=> Biotransformation
=> Non-Synthetic Reactions
=> Synthetic Reactions
=> Microsomal Enzymes
=> Non-microsomal Enzymes
=> Inhibition of Drug Metabolism
=> Microsomal Enzyme Induction
=> Consequences of Microsomal Enzyme Induction
=> First Pass (Presystemic) Metabolism
=> Excretion
=> Renal Excretion
=> Kinetics of Elimination
=> Plateau Principle
=> Prolongation of Drug Action

Chapter 4: Pharmacodynamics Mechanism Of Drug Action; Receptor Pharmacology


=> Pharmacodynamics
=> Mechanism of Drug Action
=> Enzymes
=> Ion Channels
=> Transporters
=> Receptors
=> Receptor Occupation Theory
=> The Two-State Receptor Model
=> Receptor Subtypes
=> Action Effect Sequence
=> Transducer Mechanisms
=> Gprotein Coupled Receptors (GPCR)
=> Receptors With Intrinsic Ion Channel
=> Enzyme-Linked Receptors
=> Receptors Regulating Gene Expression (Transcription Factors)
=> Functions of Receptors
=> Nonreceptor-Mediated Drug Action
=> Dose-Response Relationship
=> Therapeutic Window Phenomenon
=> Drug Potency and Efficacy
=> Combined Effect of Drugs
=> Synergism
=> Antagonism

Chapter 5: Aspects Of Pharmacotherapy, Clinical Pharmacology And Drug Development


=> Pharmacotherapy
=> Drug Dosage
=> Factors Modifying Drug Action
=> Rational Use of Medicines
=> Expiry Date of Pharmaceuticals
=> Evidence Based Medicine
=> New Drug Development
=> Preclinical Studies
=> Clinical Trials

Chapter 6: Adverse Drug Effects


=> Adverse Drug Effects
=> Pharmacovigilance
=> Prevention of Adverse Effects to Drugs
=> Adverse Drug Effects - Types
=> Mechanism and Types of Allergic Reactions
=> Treatment of Drug Allergy
=> Drug Dependence
=> Drug Withdrawal Reactions
=> Teratogenicity

DRUGS ACTING ON AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM



Autonomic Nervous System: General Considerations


=> Organization and Function
=> Neurohumoral Transmission
=> Steps in Neurohumoral Transmission
=> Cotransmission

Chapter 7: Cholinergic System And Drugs


=> Cholinergic Transmission
=> Cholinoceptors
=> Cholinergic Drugs
=> Cholinomimetic Alkaloids
=> Anticholinesterases
=> Anticholinesterases - Mechanism of Action
=> Anticholinesterases - Pharmacological Actions & Pharmacokinetics
=> Individual Compounds
=> Uses of Anticholinesterases
=> Anti-cholinesterase Poisoning

Chapter 8: Anticholinergic Drugs And Drugs Acting On Autonomic Ganglia


=> Anticholinergic Drugs
=> Classification of Anticholinergic Drugs
=> Pharmacological Actions & Pharmacokinetics
=> Atropine Substitutes
=> Uses of Anticholinergic Drugs
=> Side Effects and Toxicity
=> Drugs Acting on Autonomic Ganglia
=> Ganglionic Stimulants
=> Ganglion Blocking Agents

Chapter 9: Adrenergic System and Drugs


=> Adrenergic Transmission
=> Adrenergic Drugs
=> Pharmacological Actions of Adrenergic Drugs
=> Biochemical Mediation of Adrenergic Responses
=> Administration and Preparations of Adrenergic Drugs
=> Adverse Effects and Contraindications - Adrenergic Drugs
=> Therapeutic Classification of Adrenergic Drugs
=> Selective β2 Stimulants
=> Nasal Decongestants
=> Anorectic Agents
=> Adrenergic Drugs - Therapeutic Uses

Chapter 10: Antiadrenergic Drugs (Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists) And Drugs For Glaucoma


=> Antiadrenergic Drugs
=> α Adrenergic Blocking Drugs
=> General Effects of α Blockers
=> Uses of α Blockers
=> β Adrenergic Blocking Drugs
=> β Adrenergic Blocking Drugs - Pharmacological Actions
=> Adverse Effects and Contraindications
=> Other β Blockers
=> Uses of β Adrenergic Blocking Drugs
=> α + β Adrenergic Blockers
=> Drugs For Glaucoma

AUTACOIDS AND RELATED DRUGS



Autacoids And Related Drugs


=> Autacoids

Chapter 11: Histamine And Antihistaminics


=> Histamine
=> Synthesis, Storage and Destruction of Histamine
=> Histamine Receptors
=> Pharmacological Actions of Histamine
=> Pathophysiological Roles of Histamine
=> Uses of Histamine
=> Histamine Releasers
=> H1 Antagonists / Conventional Antihistaminics
=> Second Generation Antihistaminics
=> Uses of H1 Antagonists / Conventional Antihistaminics
=> Drugs For Vertigo
=> H2 & H3 Antagonist

Chapter 12: 5-Hydroxytryptamine, Its Antagonists And Drug Therapy Of Migraine


=> 5 Hydroxytryptamine / 5HT, Serotonin
=> Synthesis, Storage and Destruction of 5 Hydroxytryptamine
=> Serotonergic (5HT) Receptors
=> Actions of 5 Hydroxytryptamine
=> Pathophysiological Roles of 5HT
=> Drugs Affecting 5HT System
=> 5HT Antagonists
=> Ergot Alkaloids
=> Drug Therapy of Migraine
=> Selective 5HT1B/1D Agonists
=> Prophylaxis of Migraine

Chapter 13: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes (Eicosanoids) and Platelet Activating Factor


=> Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes(Eicosanoids)
=> Chemistry, Biosynthesis and Degradation
=> Actions and Pathophysiological Roles
=> Actions and Pathophysiological Roles of Leukotrienes
=> Prostanoid Receptors
=> Leukotriene Receptors
=> Uses and Side Effects of PGs and their Analogues
=> Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)

Chapter 14: Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs And Antipyreticanalgesics


=> Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Antipyretic-Analgesics
=> NSAIDs and Prostaglandin (PG) Synthesis Inhibition
=> Salicylates - Aspirin
=> Propionic Acid Derivatives
=> Anthranilic Acid Derivative (Fenamate)
=> Arylacetic Acid Derivatives
=> Oxicam Derivatives
=> Pyrrolo-Pyrrole Derivative
=> Indole Derivative
=> Pyrazolones
=> Preferential COX2 Inhibitors
=> Selective COX2 Inhibitors (Coxibs)
=> Para-Amino Phenol Derivatives
=> Benzoxazocine Derivative
=> Topical NSAIDs
=> Choice of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug
=> Analgesic Combinations

Chapter 15: Antirheumatoid and Antigout Drugs


=> Anti-rheumatoid Drugs
=> Drugs Used in Gout
=> Acute Gout
=> Chronic Gout
=> Uricosuric Drugs
=> Uric Acid Synthesis Inhibitor

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM DRUGS



Chapter 16: Drugs for Cough and Bronchial Asthma


=> Drugs for Cough
=> Demulcents and Expectorants
=> Antitussives
=> Some Antitussive Expectorant Combinations
=> Drugs for Bronchial Asthma
=> Choice of Treatment - Bronchial Asthma
=> Some Anti-asthma Combinations
=> Inhaled Asthma Medication
=> Anti IgE Antibody
=> Inhaled Steroids
=> Systemic Steroid Therapy
=> Mast Cell Stabilizers
=> Leukotriene Antagonists
=> Methyl Xanthines
=> Sympathomimetics

HORMONES AND RELATED DRUGS



Hormones And Related Drugs


=> Hormones and Related Drugs

Chapter 17: Anterior Pituitary Hormones


=> Anterior Pituitary Hormones
=> Growth Hormone (GH)
=> GH Inhibitors
=> Prolactin
=> Prolactin Inhibitors
=> Gonadotropins (Gns)
=> GnRH Antagonists
=> Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, Thyrotropin)
=> Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH, Corticotropin)

Chapter 18: Thyroid Hormones And Thyroid Inhibitors


=> Thyroid Hormone
=> Synthesis of Thyroid Hormone
=> Transport, Metabolism and Excretion of Thyroid Hormone
=> Regulation of Secretion of Thyroid Hormone
=> Actions of Thyroid Hormone
=> Mechanism of Action of Thyroid Hormone
=> Relation between T4 and T3
=> Preparations of Thyroid Hormone
=> Uses of Thyroid Hormone
=> Thyroid Inhibitors
=> Antithyroid Drugs
=> Iodine and Iodides
=> Radioactive Iodine

Chapter 19: Insulin, Oral Hypoglycaemic Drugs and Glucagon


=> Diabetes Mellitus (DM)
=> Insulin
=> Regulation of Insulin Secretion
=> Actions of Insulin
=> Mechanism of Action Of Insulin
=> Fate of Insulin
=> Conventional Preparations of Insulin
=> Highly Purified Insulin Preparations
=> Human Insulins
=> Reactions to Insulin
=> Uses of Insulin
=> Insulin Resistance
=> Newer Insulin Delivery Devices
=> Oral Hypoglycaemic Drugs
=> Sulfonylureas
=> Biguanides
=> Meglitinide / D-phenylalanine Analogues
=> Thiazolidinediones
=> Glucosidase Inhibitors
=> Status of Oral Hypoglycaemics in Diabetes Mellitus
=> Newer Approaches in Diabetes
=> Glucagon
=> Other Hyperglycaemics

Chapter 20: Corticosteroids


=> Corticosteroids
=> Biosynthesis of Corticosteroids
=> Actions of Corticosteroids
=> Mineralocorticoid Actions
=> Glucocorticoid Actions
=> Mechanism of Action of Corticosteroids
=> Pharmacokinetics of Corticoids
=> Chemistry and Relative Activity of Corticoids
=> Distinctive Features of Corticosteroids
=> Uses of Corticosteroids
=> Adverse Effects & Contraindications of Corticosteroids
=> Glucocorticoid Antagonist

Chapter 21: Androgens and Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction


=> Androgens
=> Regulation of Secretion - Androgens
=> Actions of Androgens
=> Mechanism of Action of Testosterone (Androgen)
=> Pharmacokinetics of Testosterone (Androgen)
=> Preparations and Dose of Testosterone
=> Transdermal Androgen
=> Side Effects Side Effects of Male Sex Hormones / Testosterone
=> Uses of Testosterone / Androgen / Male Sex Hormones
=> Anabolic Steroids
=> Impeded Androgens / Antiandrogens
=> 5 α-Reductase Inhibitor
=> Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction

Chapter 22: Estrogens, Progestins and Contraceptives


=> Estrogens
=> Actions of Estrogens
=> Mechanism of Action of Estrogens
=> Pharmacokinetics of Estrogens
=> Preparations and Dose - Estrogen
=> Adverse Effects of Estrogen
=> Uses of Estrogens
=> Antiestrogens and Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMS)
=> Aromatase Inhibitors
=> Progestins
=> Antiprogestin
=> Hormonal Contraceptives
=> Female Contraception - Hormonal Contraceptives
=> Male Contraceptives

Chapter 23: Oxytocin And Other Drugs Acting On Uterus


=> Drugs Acting on Uterus
=> Uterine Stimulants
=> Oxytocin - Uterine Stimulants
=> Ergometrine, Methylergometrine - Uterine Stimulants
=> Prostaglandins - Uterine Stimulants
=> Uterine Relaxants

Chapter 24: Drugs Affecting Calcium Balance


=> Calcium
=> Parathyroid Hormone
=> Calcitonin
=> Vitamin D
=> Bisphosphonates
=> Other Drugs for Hypercalcaemia

DRUGS ACTING ON PERIPHERAL(SOMATIC) NERVOUS SYSTEM



Chapter 27: Skeletal Muscle Relaxants


=> Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
=> Peripherally Acting Muscle Relaxants
=> Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxants

Chapter 28: Local Anaesthetics


=> Local Anaesthetics
=> Mechanism of Action of Local Anaesthetics
=> Uses and Techniques of Local Anaesthesia

DRUGS ACTING ON CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM



Chapter 27: General Anaesthetics


=> General Anaesthetics
=> Stages of Anaesthesia
=> Mechanism of General Anaesthesia
=> Pharmacokinetics of Inhalational Anaesthetics
=> Second Gas Effect and Diffusion Hypoxia
=> Techniques of Inhalation of Anaesthetics
=> Properties of an Ideal Anaesthetic
=> Inhalational Anaesthetics
=> Intravenous Anaesthetics Inducing Agents
=> Slower Acting Drugs
=> Conscious Sedation
=> Complications of General Anaesthesia
=> Preanaesthetic Medication

Chapter 28: Ethyl and Methyl Alcohols


=> Ethyl Alcohol
=> Guidelines For Safe Drinking
=> Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors
=> Methyl Alcohol

Chapter 29: Sedative -Hypnotics


=> Sedative -Hypnotics
=> Barbiturates
=> Acute Barbiturate Poisoning
=> Benzodiazepines (BZDS)
=> Benzodiazepine Antagonist

Chapter 30: Antiepileptic Drugs


=> Epilepsies
=> Antiepileptic Drugs
=> Treatment of Epilepsies

Chapter 31: Antiparkinsonian Drugs


=> Parkinsonism
=> Antiparkinsonian Drugs
=> Levodopa
=> Peripheral Decarboxylase Inhibitors
=> Dopaminergic Agonists
=> MAO-B Inhibitor
=> COMT Inhibitors
=> Dopamine Facilitator
=> Some General Points

Chapter 32: Drugs Used In Mental Illness: Antipsychotic And Antimanic Drugs


=> Antipsychotic Drugs : Introduction
=> Antipsychotic Drugs
=> Antimanic (Mood Stabilizing) Drugs
=> Hallucinogens

Chapter 33: Drugs Used In Mental Illness: Antidepressant And Antianxiety Drugs


=> Depression & Antidepressants
=> Antidepressant Drugs
=> Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAS)
=> Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIS)
=> Antianxiety Drugs
=> Treatment of Anxiety

Chapter 34: Opioid Analgesics And Antagonists


=> Algesia And Analgesics
=> Opioid Analgesics
=> Opioid Receptors
=> Complex Action Opioids and Opioid Antagonists
=> Pure Opioid Antagonists
=> Endogenous Opioid Peptides

Chapter 35: CNS Stimulants and Cognition Enhancers


=> CNS Stimulants
=> Cognition Enhancers

CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS



Cardiac Electrophysiological Considerations


=> Cardiac Electrophysiological Considerations

Chapter 36: Drugs Affecting Renin-Angiotensin System And Plasma Kinins


=> Angiotensin
=> Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
=> Angiotensin Antagonists or Angiotensin Receptor Blockers or ARBs
=> Plasma Kinins (Bradykinin and Kallidin)

Chapter 37: Cardiac Glycosides and Drugs for Heart Failure


=> Cardiac Glycosides
=> Treatment of CHF

Chapter 38: Antiarrhythmic Drugs


=> Antiarrhythmic Drugs
=> Drugs for PSVT
=> Drugs for AV Block
=> Choice of Antiarrhythmics

Chapter 39: Antianginal and Other Anti-Ischaemic Drugs


=> Antianginal Drugs
=> Nitrates (GTN as prototype)
=> Calcium Channel Blockers
=> Potassium Channel Openers
=> Drugs for Peripheral Vascular Diseases
=> Drug Therapy in Myocardial Infarction

Chapter 40: Antihypertensive Drugs


=> Antihypertensive Drugs
=> Hypertension in Pregnancy
=> Hypertensive Emergencies and Urgencies

DRUGS ACTING ON KIDNEY



Drugs Acting On Kidney


=> Relevant Physiology of Urine Formation

Chapter 41: Diuretics


=> Diuretics
=> Diuretics
=> High Ceiling (Loop) Diuretics
=> Thiazide and Related Diuretics
=> Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
=> Potassium Sparing Diuretics
=> Osmotic Diuretics

Chapter 42: Antidiuretics


=> Antidiuretics
=> Antidiuretic Hormone
=> Vasopressin Analogues

DRUGS AFFECTING BLOOD AND BLOOD FORMATION



Chapter 43: Drugs Affecting Blood And Blood Formation


=> Haematinics and Erythropoietin
=> Iron
=> Acute Iron Poisoning
=> Miscellaneous/Adjuvant Haematinics
=> Maturation Factors - Vit B12 and Folic Acid
=> Erythropoietin

Chapter 44: Drugs Affecting Coagulation, Bleeding And Thrombosis


=> Coagulation
=> Coagulants
=> Vitamin K
=> Anticoagulants - Classification
=> Heparin
=> Low Molecular Weight (LMW) Heparins
=> Oral Anticoagulants
=> Fibrinolytics (Thrombolytics)
=> Antifibrinolytics
=> Antiplatelet Drugs (Antithrombotic drugs)

Chapter 45: Hypolipidaemic Drugs And Plasma Expanders


=> Hypolipidaemic Drugs
=> Comments on the use of Hypolipidaemic Drugs
=> Plasma Expanders

GASTROINTESTINAL DRUGS



Chapter 46: Drugs For Peptic Ulcer and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease


=> Drugs for Peptic Ulcer
=> H2 Antagonists
=> Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs)
=> Antacids
=> Anti-Helicobacter Pylori Drugs
=> Role of Drugs in Peptic Ulcer Disease

Chapter 47: Drugs For Emesis, Reflux And Digestive Disorders


=> Emesis
=> Emetics
=> Antiemetics
=> Metoclopramide - Prokinetic Drug
=> Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
=> Carminatives
=> Digestants
=> Gallstone Dissolving Drugs

Chapter 48: Drugs For Constipation And Diarrhoea


=> Laxatives
=> Choice and use of Purgatives
=> Treatment Of Diarrhoeas
=> Composition of Oral Rehydration Solution

ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS



Chapter 49: Antimicrobial Drugs: General Considerations


=> Antimicrobial Drugs
=> Problems that arise with the use of AMAs
=> Choice of an Antimicrobial Agent
=> Bacteriological Sensitivity Testing
=> Combined Use of Antimicrobials
=> Combined Use of Antimicrobials
=> Prophylactic Use of Antimicrobials
=> Failure of Antimicrobial Therapy

Chapter 50: Sulfonamides, Cotrimoxazole And Quinolones


=> Sulfonamides
=> Cotrimoxazole
=> Quinolones

Chapter 51: Betalactam Antibiotics


=> Betalactam Antibiotics
=> Penicillins
=> Penicillin-G (Benzyl Penicillin)
=> Semisynthetic Penicillins
=> Cephalosporins
=> Monobactams
=> Carbapenems

Chapter 52: Tetracyclines And Chloramphenicol (Broadspectrum Antibiotics)


=> Tetracyclines
=> Chloramphenicol

Chapter 53: Aminoglycoside Antibiotics


=> Aminoglycoside Antibiotics
=> Streptomycin
=> Gentamicin
=> Kanamycin
=> Neomycin

Chapter 54: Macrolide, Lincosamide, Glycopeptide And Other Antibacterial Antibiotics, Urinary Antiseptics


=> Macrolide Antibiotics
=> Lincosamide Antibiotics
=> Glycopeptide Antibiotics
=> Oxazolidinone
=> Polypeptide Antibiotics
=> Urinary Antiseptics
=> Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections
=> Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Chapter 55: Antitubercular Drugs


=> Antitubercular Drugs
=> Treatment of Tuberculosis

Chapter 56: Antileprotic Drugs


=> Classification of Antileprotic Drugs
=> Dapsone (DDS)
=> Treatment of Leprosy

Chapter 57: Antifungal Drugs


=> Antifungal Drugs
=> Polyene Antibiotics
=> Heterocyclic Benzofuran
=> Imidazoles and Triazoles
=> Other Topical Antifungals
=> Amphotericin B (AMB)
=> Griseofulvin
=> Flucytosine (5FC)
=> Ketoconazole (KTZ)
=> Terbinafine

Chapter 58: Antiviral Drugs


=> Antiviral Drugs
=> Anti-Herpes Virus Drugs
=> Anti-Retrovirus Drugs
=> Fusion Inhibitor
=> Some Antiretroviral Combinations
=> HIV Treatment Guidelines
=> Anti-Influenza Virus Drugs
=> Nonselective Antiviral Drugs

Chapter 59: Antimalarial Drugs


=> Antimalarial Drugs
=> Objectives and Use of Antimalarials
=> Chloroquine
=> Mefloquine
=> Quinine
=> Biguanides - Proguanil
=> Pyrimethamine
=> Primaquine
=> Tetracyclines
=> Artemisinin Derivatives
=> Aminoalcohols
=> Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy (ACT)

Chapter 60: Antiamoebic And Other Antiprotozoal Drugs


=> Antiamoebic Drugs
=> Metronidazole
=> Emetine
=> Chloroquine
=> Amides
=> 8-Hydroxyquinolines
=> Notes on the Treatment of Amoebiasis
=> Drugs for Giardiasis
=> Drugs for Trichomoniasis
=> Drugs for Leishmaniasis
=> Anthelmintic Drugs
=> Anthelmintic Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

Chapter 61: Anticancer Drugs


=> Anticancer Drugs
=> General Toxicity of Cytotoxic Drugs
=> Alkylating Agents
=> Antimetabolites
=> Vinca Alkaloids
=> Taxanes
=> Epipodophyllotoxins
=> Camptothecin Analogues
=> Antibiotics
=> Miscellaneous Cytotoxic Drugs
=> Hormones
=> General Principles in Chemotherapy of Cancer
=> General Principles in Chemotherapy of Cancer

MISCELLANEOUS DRUGS



Chapter 62: Immunosuppressant Drugs, Gene Therapy


=> Immunosuppressant Drugs
=> Immunosuppression in Organ Transplantation
=> Gene Therapy
=> Applications of Gene Therapy

Chapter 63: Drugs Acting On Skin And Mucous Membranes


=> Demulcents
=> Emollients
=> Adsorbants and Protectives
=> Astringents
=> Irritants and Counter-Irritants
=> Caustics and Escharotics
=> Keratolytics
=> Anti-Seborrheics
=> Melanizing Agents
=> Drugs for Psoriasis
=> Demelanizing Agents
=> Sunscreens
=> Drugs for Acne Vulgaris
=> Topical Steroids

Chapter 64: Antiseptics, Disinfectants and Ectoparasiticides


=> Antiseptics and Disinfectants
=> Ectoparasiticides

Chapter 65: Chelating Agents


=> Chelating Agents

Chapter 66: Vitamins


=> Vitamins
=> Fatsoluble Vitamins
=> Fatsoluble Vitamins
=> Watersoluble Vitamins
=> Antioxidant Vitamins (Vit E, β Carotene, Vit C) In Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

Chapter 67: Vaccines And Sera


=> Vaccines and Sera
=> Vaccines
=> Bacterial Vaccines
=> Viral Vaccines
=> Toxoids
=> Mixed Antigens
=> Antisera and Immuneglobulins

Chapter 78: Drug Interactions


=> Drug Interactions
=> Mechanism of Drug Interactions

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