Xanthine diuretics - Nonmercurial diuretics

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Chapter: Medicinal Chemistry : Diuretics

Nonmercurial diuretics : Xanthine diuretics : Properties, Synthesis and Drug Profile


SYNTHESIS AND DRUG PROFILE


Nonmercurial diuretics


Xanthine diuretics

Synthesis and drug profile of Caffeine, Theophylline, and Theobromine are discussed under sec III, Chapter CNS Stimulants.

Properties
  • The Xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) have a weak diuretic activity.

  • They have been known for their diuretic action, but currently it is rarely used.

  • Aminophylline (theophylline ethylene diamine) is the most used member.

  • Theophylline exerts its diuretic action by inhibition of Na+ reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule.

  • These drugs increase renal plasma flow, promoting a higher glomerular filtration rate.

  • Adverse effects are central nervous system (CNS) stimulation and vomiting.


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