Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity (ADCC)

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Chapter: Pharmaceutical Microbiology : Immunology

Through specific binding to antigen on the surface of membranes perceived as ‘foreign’, e.g. microbial cells or host cells virally infected or otherwise transformed..


ANTIBODY-DEPENDENT CELL CYTOTOXICITY (ADCC)

 

Through specific binding to antigen on the surface of membranes perceived as ‘foreign’, e.g. microbial cells or host cells virally infected or otherwise transformed, antibody can direct (through its Fc domains) the close association of ‘killing’ cells, such as neutrophils, eosinophils, NK cells and even cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, with the ‘foreign’ membrane. This close association depends on the antibody’s Fc domain binding to the respective Fc receptor present on the surface membrane of the ‘killing’ cell. Such close proximity to the ‘foreign’ cell enables the efficient and targeted release of cytotoxic molecules into the extracellular environment. IgG is the main antibody of systemic body fluids and is an important mediator of ADCC, although IgE and IgA may undertake this role in certain circumstances, e.g. against certain parasites IgE directs ADCC mediated by eosinophils.

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