Classification of Powders

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Chapter: Textbook of Cosmetic Formulation : Powders

Three different types of powder products are used in cosmetics, which are as follows:


CLASSIFICATION OF POWDERS

 

Three different types of powder products are used in cosmetics, which are as follows:

 

 

1.           Face powders

 

2.           Compacts

 

3.           Body powders / Talcum powders / Dusting powders.

 


 

 

1.            Face Powders:

 

These powders have the ability to complement the skin colour by providing velvety finish to it.

 

 

Properties:

 

·                               It should impart smooth finish to the skin.

 

·                               It should mask minor imperfections (which are visible) on the skin.

 

·                               It should eliminate shine present on the skin due to moisture or grease.

 

·                               It should have long lasting property to avoid frequent application.

 

·                               It should be resistant to the secretions of the skin i.e., sebaceous and perspiration.

 

·                               It should serve as a vehicle to perfumes so that the particles of perfumes may spread easily.

 

 

A single substance is unable to impart all the characters i.e., covering power. Slip character absorbent capacity, adhesive property. Hence, mixture of substances is used in the formulation of powders to impart desired properties to the skin.

 

 

Depending on the type of skin to be powdered, the face powders are classified into 3 types.

 

They are light type, medium type and heavy type.

 

 

(i)           Light Type: These types of powders are applied on dry skin. They have low covering power since the dry skin does not secrete any oils. Large amount of talc will be present in the formulation of powders.

 

 

Method: It is a dry mixing method.

 

Perfume is added to some part of calcium carbonate, which is absorbent and mixed thoroughly. This preparation is kept aside for some time. This is mixture A.

Color is add added to some part-of talc and mixed thoroughly. This is mixture B. Then kaolin, zinc oxide, zinc stearate, magnesium carbonate and remaining part of calcium carbonate and talc are added to mixture B and mixed properly. Mixture A is added to the above mixture and mixing is carried out. Finally, the preparation is sieved by using either a silk mesh or nylon cloth.

 

 

Formula         Quantity for 100 g

 

   

Talc (Slip Character)        63 g

   

Kaolin (Covering Materials)      20 g

   

Calcium Carbonate (Absorbent)          5 g

   

Zinc Oxide (Covering Materials)         5g

   

Zinc Stearate (Slip Character)   5g

   

Magnesium Carbonate (Absorbent)    1 g

   

Color    0.5 g

   

Perfume (Odour)     0.5 g

 

 

(ii)           Medium type: Type of powders is applied on the normal or moderate oily skins. These skins are shiny in nature due to the sebaceous secretions or perspiration (sweat). They have good covering power compared to light type. They contain less quantity of talc along with slightly more quantity of zinc oxide (The less quantity of talc is balanced by zinc oxide).

 

 

Formula         Quantity for 100 g

 

            

Talc (Slip Character)             39.7 g

            

Kaolin (Covering Materials)      39.5 g

                      

Calcium Carbonate (Absorbent)         5 g

                      

Zinc Oxide (Covering Materials)                7g

                      

Zinc Stearate (Slip Character)          7 g

            

Magnesium Carbonate (Absorbent)    1 g

            

Color    0.2 g

            

Perfume (Odour)     0.6 g

 

Method The method is same as that of light type of face powders.

 

 

(iii)           Heavy type: These types of powders are applied on extremely oily skins, which have more shine due to secretions. They have high covering power, in order to cover the shine of the skin. They, contain less quantity of talc and more quantity of zinc oxide.

 

 

Formula         Quantity for 100 g

 

            

Magnesium Stearate (Covering Materials)    5 g

            

Kaolin (Covering Materials)      20 g

            

Zinc Oxide (Covering Materials)         15 g

            

Calcium Carbonate (Absorbent)    39 g

            

Talc (Slip Character)        20 g

 

 

2.          Compacts:

 

Loose powder or dry powders are compressed in the form of cake along with binder by compaction process; in order to form compact Powders. Compact are applied on the face with help of powder puff. The pressure used in compaction process is an important factor in the formulation of compacts. As low pressure may form cake which break easily during use and high pressure form very hard cake which will not adhere to the puff easily. The average particle in compact powders is looser compared tri loose powders, due to compaction.

 

Ingredients: The composition of compact powder is similar to face powder but binding agents e incorporated, in order to increase adhesion property.

 

Binders Examples

            

1.Dry binders (requires increased pressure   zinc stearate, magnesium stearate

for Compaction)

                      

2.Oil binder   mineral oil, isopropyl myristate, lanolin derivatives    

 

3. Water-soluble binders   tragacanth, karaya, Arabic

(a) Aqueous solution gums         polyvinyl pyrrolidine (PVP),methyl

(b) Aqueous solution of synthetic or Semi     cellulose synthetic gums, Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)

(c ) Preservatives are added along with gum to avoid microbial growth               

 

4. Water-repellant binder. Mineral oil, fatty esters, derivatives of lanolin.

Wetting agent is also used for uniform (These materials are used in combination with distribution of moisture water)  

 

5. Emulsion binder  Triethanolamine stearate, emulsifiers, glycerol Monostearate.     

 

 

Preparation Of Compacts:

 

Compact powders are prepared by three methods. They are:

 

 

(a)         Wet Method

 

(b)          Dry Method

 

(c)          Damp Method,

 

 

(a)          Wet Method: The basic material (i.e., powder), colour and binders are formulated in the form of paste with the help of water. Then the pastes are pressed into moulds and slowly the products are dried by air. This method is not widely used, as there is a possibility of producing cracks and other faults in the preparation.

 

 

(b)           Dry Method: In this method, the basic materials and binders are compressed in special presses with the help of pressure. This method is carried out under controlled conditions.

 

Examples:

 

·                               Mixture of ammonia, stearic acid and starch.

 

·                               Mixture of stearic acid and starch

 

·                               Mixture of sodium stearate, lanolin and cetyl alcohol or

 

·                               Mixture of triethanolamine stearate, lanolin and cetyl alcohol.

 

 

(c)           Damp Method: This method is most widely used for commercial purposes. The base powder, colour and perfume are properly mixed to form a mixture. Then liquid binder i.e., aqueous mucilage or mucin rich emulsion (oil-in-water type) are added to the mixture. Then it is properly blended until the desired plasticity of the product is obtained. Screening of mixture is carried out followed by compression by machine. Finally, the product is dried at elevated temperature.

 

 

Formula 1

(Without Binder) -   Quantity for 100 g

 

            

Talc (slip character) 69 g

            

Kaolin (covering materials)        18 g

            

Titanium dioxide (covering materials) 8 g

            

zinc stearate (slip character)      5 g

            

Color    q. s

            

Perfume (odour)      q. s

            

Binder (with Binder)         q. s

            

gum Arabic ( water-soluble Binder)    1 g

            

Glycerol (emulsion Binder)        5 g

            

Water (vehicle)        94 g

            

Preservatives  q. s   

 

 

Formula 2

(Without Binder)     Quantity for 100 g

 

            

Talc (slip character) 79 g

            

Calcium carbonate (absorbent)  9 g

            

zinc oxide (covering materials)   7 g

            

c (slip character)      5 g

            

Color    q. s

            

Perfume (odour)      q. s

            

Binder (with Binder)         q. s

            

Gum tragacanth  ( water-soluble Binder)      2 g

            

Glycerol monostearate (emulsion Binder)     6 g

            

Mineral oil (oil binder)     4 g

            

Sorbitol 5 g

            

Water (vehicle)        83 g

            

Preservatives  q. s

 

            

Method: The method is same as that of face powder but here binders are incorporated in the formulation.

 

 

3.  Body Powder/ Talcum Powder/ Dust Powders:

 

These powders are most widely used preparation for multiple purposes. They contain covering materials, adhesives, absorbency material, antiseptic and perfumes. The main function of body powder is absorption of perspiration (sweat). Due to the presence of fat film in the body powder, they adhere to the surface of the skin.

 

 


Properties:

 

·                               They should provide good slip character to the skin.

 

·                               They should provide cooling and lubrication effect to the skin.

 

·                               They should be able to prevent irritation of the skin.

 

 

Ingredients:

 

Ingredients which are used in the formulation of body powders are as follows:

 

 

    Ingredients with Example

            

1. Metallic compound:      zinc stearate, aluminium stearate, magnesium carbonate(light), precipitate calcium carbonate (chalk)

            

2. Antiseptic materials:     Boric acid, chlorohexidine diacetate,

They are incorporated in the formulation in order to prevent the growth of microorganism   which are responsible for the development of        

perspiration (sweat) and odour.

 

3. Adsorbent material       : Kaolin, magnesium carbonate, precipitate chalk, starch

            

4. Slip character:     Talc, zinc stearate

            

5. Adhesive materials:       Kaolin, zinc oxide, magnesium stearate

            

 

Formula - Quantity for 100 g

   

 

Talc (slip character) 75 g

   

Colloidal kaolin (adhesive material)    10 g

   

Colloidal silica (binding agent)   5 g

   

Magnesium  carbonate (absorbent)     5 g

   

Aluminium stearate 4 g

   

Boric acid (antiseptic)       0.3 g

   

Perfume (odour)      0.7 g

 

 

Method:

 

Initially perfume is mixed with magnesium carbonate (absorbent) properly. This mixture is kept aside for some time. This is mixture A.

 

Talc, colloidal kaolin, colloidal silica, aluminium stearate and boric acid are mixed together. This is mixture B.

 

      Mixture A is added to mixture B and then mixing is carried out properly.

             

            Then the preparation is passed through a sieve.

 

               Finally, the product is packed in a suitable container.

 

 

Formulation:

 

 

Formula       Quantity for 100 g

   

 

Talc (slip character) 70 g

   

Calcium carbonate (absorbent)  25 g

   

Zinc stearate  (slip character)     4 g

   

Boric acid (antiseptic)       0.3 g

   

Perfume oil (odour) 0.7 g

 

 

Method:

 

Perfume oil is mixed with calcium carbonate (absorbent) properly. This mixture is kept aside for some time. This is mixture A.

 

Talc, zinc stearate and boric acid are mixed together. This is mixture B.

 

Mixture A is added to mixture B and then mixing is carried out properly.

 

Then the preparation is passed through a sieve.

 

Finally, the product is packed in a suitable container.

 

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