Functions of Renal System

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Chapter: Medicinal Chemistry : Urinary System

The functions of renal system are as follows:

Functions of Renal System

The functions of renal system are as follows:

Regulation of blood ionic compounds: The kidneys help to regulate the blood ions, i.e., sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), chloride (Cl) and phosphate ions (HPO42–)

Regulation of blood pH: The kidneys excrete a variable amount of hydrogen ions (H+) into the urine and conserve bicarbonate (HCO3) ions, which regulate pH of blood.

Regulation of fluid volume: The kidneys adjust blood volume by eliminating water in urine.

Regulation of blood pressure (BP): BP is regulated by the kidneys through an enzyme called renin secreted by ju xtra glomerular cells, which activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) pathway. Increased renin causes increase in BP.

Maintenance of blood osmolarity: The kidneys produce two hormones, calcitrol and erythropoietin. Calcitrol, the active form of vitamin D helps to regulate calcitrol homeostasis and erythropoietin stimulates the production of red blood cells (RBCs).

Regulation of blood glucose level: The kidneys can use the amino acid of glutamine in gluconeogenesis and release blood to maintain sugar level.

Excretion of metabolite waste products and foreign substances: Metabolic products like ammonia, urea, bilurubin, creatinine, uric acid, and other substances, i.e., toxins of exogenous compounds and drug metabolites, etc., are excreted through urine.

Renal haemodynamics is altered by diuretics in clinical medicine. The therapeutic applications of diuretics are mainly concerned with hypertension and heart failure.

The normal renal physiological process includes glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption.

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