Glycogenesis

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Chapter: Anatomy and Physiology for Health Professionals: Levels of Organization : Cellular Metabolism

Cells cannot store large amounts of ATP. As a result, unlimited amounts of glucose do not cause an unlimited amount of ATP to be synthesized.


Glycogenesis

Cells cannot store large amounts of ATP. As a result, unlimited amounts of glucose do not cause an unlimited amount of ATP to be synthesized. If there is excessive glucose available that cannot be oxidized immediately, glucose catabolism is soon inhibited by the increasing concentrations of ATP in the cells. Therefore, glucose is stored as either fat or glycogen. Fats make up 80% to 85% of stored energy because the body is able to store much more fat than ­glycogen. Glycogenesis is a process in which glucose molecules are joined (in long chains) to form glycogen. This occurs when ATP levels begin to stop glycolysis from occurring­. Glucose enters the cells to become phosphorylated to glucose-6-­phosphate. It is then converted to its isomer, which is known as ­glucose-1-phosphate. As the enzyme glycogen­ synthase catalyzes glucose attachment to the ­glycogen chain, the terminal phosphate group is cleaved off. When glycogen is being synthesized and stored, the skeletal muscle and liver cells are at their most active states.

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