Anatomy and Physiology

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Anatomy and Physiology




SECTION I: LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION



Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology


=> Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
=> Organization Levels of the Body
=> Essentials for Life
=> Homeostasis
=> Organization of the Body
=> Summary

Chapter 2: Chemical Basics of Life


=> Chemical Basics of Life
=> Basic Chemistry
=> Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical Bonds
=> Atomic Structure
=> Molecules and Compounds
=> Chemical Bonds
=> Chemical Reactions
=> Acids, Bases, and the pH Scale
=> Biochemistry
=> Inorganic Substances
=> Organic Substances
=> Proteins
=> Nucleic Acids
=> Enzymes and Enzyme Characteristics
=> Adenosine Triphosphate
=> Summary

Chapter 3: Cells


=> Cells
=> Cell Membrane - Structure of the Cell
=> Membrane Lipids and Membrane Proteins
=> Cytoplasm (Cytosol, Organelles) Structure
=> Structure of Endomembrane System and Cytoskeleton
=> Structure of Nucleus
=> Passive Cell Mechanisms
=> Active Cell Mechanisms
=> Cell Cycle
=> Cell Cycle: Interphase
=> Cell Cycle: Cell Division and Cytoplasmic Division
=> Cell Cycle: Differentiation
=> Cell Cycle: Cell Division and Cancer
=> Summary

Chapter 4: Cellular Metabolism


=> Cellular Metabolism
=> Metabolic Reactions
=> Control of Metabolic Reactions
=> Oxidation Reduction Reactions
=> Chemical Energy
=> Cellular Respiration and Metabolism of Carbohydrates
=> Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle)
=> Metabolic Pathways
=> Glycogenesis
=> Glycogenolysis
=> Gluconeogenesis
=> Metabolism of Lipids
=> Metabolism of Proteins
=> Summary

Chapter 5: Tissues


=> Tissues
=> Types of Tissues
=> Epithelial Tissues
=> Connective Tissues
=> Classifications of Connective Tissue
=> Muscle Tissues
=> Nervous or Neural Tissues
=> Tissue Membranes
=> Tissue Repair
=> Effects of Aging on Various Tissues
=> Summary on Tissues

SECTION II: SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT



Chapter 6: Integumentary System


=> Integumentary System
=> Skin
=> Dermis - Skin
=> Nails
=> Hairs
=> Glands in the Skin
=> Functions of the Integumentary System
=> Response of the Integument to Injuries and Wounds
=> Effects of Aging on the Integumentary System
=> Skin Cancer
=> Burns
=> Summary - Integumentary System

Chapter 7: Bone Tissues and the Skeletal System


=> Bone Tissues and the Skeletal System
=> Classifications of Bones
=> Structures of Bones
=> Microscopic Anatomy (Bone Cells)
=> Chemical Composition of Bone
=> Growth and Development of Bones
=> Functions of Bones
=> Bone Homeostasis
=> Bone Homeostatic Imbalance
=> Axial Skeleton
=> Pectoral Girdle - Appendicular Skeleton
=> Pelvic Girdle - Appendicular Skeleton
=> Effects of Aging on the Skeletal System
=> Summary

Chapter 8: Articulations


=> Articulations
=> Functional Classifications of Joints
=> Fibrous Joints
=> Cartilaginous Joints
=> Synovial Joints
=> Bursae and Tendon Sheaths
=> Types of Synovial Joints
=> Shoulder Joints
=> Elbow Joints
=> Hip Joints
=> Knee Joints
=> Temporomandibular Joints (TMJ)
=> Types of Joint Movements
=> Intervertebral Joints
=> Intervertebral Ligaments
=> Joint Injuries
=> Effects of Aging on the Joints
=> Summary

Chapter 9: Muscle Tissue


=> Muscle Tissue
=> Classification of Muscle Tissues
=> Characteristics of Muscle Tissue
=> Functions of the Muscles
=> Coverings of Connective Tissue
=> Blood Supply and Nerve Attachments
=> Structure of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
=> Contraction Stimulus
=> Neuromuscular Junction
=> Action Potential
=> Sarcoplasmic Reticulum and Transverse Tubules
=> Somatic Motor Neurons
=> Motor Units
=> Muscle Twitch
=> Energy Sources for Contraction
=> Smooth Muscle
=> Effects of Aging on Muscle Tissue
=> Summary on Muscle Tissue

Chapter 10: Muscular System


=> Muscular System
=> Classification of the Muscle Fibers
=> Types of Fibers
=> Lever Systems
=> Effects of Aging on the Muscular System
=> Summary

SECTION III: Control and Coordination



Chapter 11: Neural Tissue


=> Neural Tissue
=> Divisions of the Nervous System
=> Cells of the Nervous System
=> Classification of Nerve Fibers
=> Cell Membrane Potential
=> Nerve Impulses
=> Synapses
=> Processing of Impulses
=> Effects of Aging on the Nervous System
=> Summary

Chapter 12: Central Nervous System


=> Central Nervous System
=> The Brain
=> Higher Brain Functions
=> Brain Protection
=> Spinal Cord
=> Spinal Neuronal Pathways
=> Imbalances of the CNS
=> Effects of Aging on the Brain
=> Summary

Chapter 13: Peripheral Nervous System and Reflex Activity


=> Peripheral Nervous System and Reflex Activity
=> Sensory Receptors
=> General Senses
=> Peripheral Nerves:Cranial, Spinal Nerves
=> Cranial Nerves
=> Spinal Nerves
=> Peripheral Motor Endings
=> Somatic Nervous System
=> Imbalances of the PNS (Peripheral Nervous System)
=> Effects of Aging on the PNS (Peripheral Nervous System)
=> Summary

Chapter 14: Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)


=> Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
=> Comparison of the Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System
=> Major ANS(Autonomic Nervous System) Neurotransmitters
=> Autonomic Nerve Fibers
=> Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
=> Differences Between the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions
=> Cholinergic Receptors
=> Adrenergic Receptors
=> Control of Autonomic Activity
=> Somatic and Autonomic Function Overlap
=> Higher Levels of Autonomic Control
=> Imbalances of the ANS (Autonomic Nervous System)
=> Effects of Aging on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
=> Summary

Chapter 15: Special Senses


=> Special Senses
=> Sense of Smell
=> Sense of Taste
=> Sense of Hearing
=> Sense of Equilibrium
=> Sense of Sight
=> Effects of Aging on the Senses
=> Summary

Chapter 16: Endocrine System


=> Endocrine System
=> Hormones
=> Control of Hormones
=> Pituitary Gland
=> Thyroid Gland
=> Parathyroid Glands
=> Adrenal Glands
=> Pineal Gland
=> Other Glands, Organs, or Tissues
=> Stress
=> Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System
=> Summary

SECTION IV: Transport



Chapter 17: Blood


=> Blood
=> Blood Functions
=> Blood Components
=> Plasma
=> Erythrocytes
=> Disorders of Erythrocytes
=> Leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs)
=> Platelets or thrombocytes
=> Hemostasis
=> Blood Types and Transfusions
=> Diagnostic Blood Tests
=> Effects of Aging on the Blood
=> Summary

Chapter 18: The Heart


=> The Heart
=> Blood Circulation
=> Structures of the Heart
=> Functions of the Heart
=> Effects of Aging on the Cardiovascular System
=> Summary

Chapter 19: Vascular System


=> Vascular System
=> Blood Vessel Structure
=> Arterial System
=> Capillaries
=> Venous System
=> Vascular Anastomoses
=> Blood Circulation
=> Blood Pressure
=> Neural Controls of Blood Vessels
=> Blood Vessel Pathways and Divisions
=> Aorta and Its Branches
=> Veins and Their Branches
=> Effects of Aging on the Vascular System
=> Summary

Chapter 20: Lymphatic System and Immunity


=> Lymphatic System and Immunity
=> Organization of the Lymphatic System
=> Body Defenses and Fighting Infection
=> Innate (Nonspecific) Defenses
=> Adaptive (Specific) Defenses
=> B and T Lymphocytes Related to the Adaptive Immune Response
=> Humoral Immune Response
=> Antibodies
=> Cellular Immune Response
=> Major Effector T Cells
=> Imbalance of Immune System Homeostasis
=> Hypersensitivities
=> Effects of Aging on the Lymphatic System and Immunity
=> Summary

SECTION V: Environmental Exchange



Chapter 21: Respiratory System


=> Respiratory System
=> Respiratory System Functions
=> Organization of the Respiratory System
=> Nose and Paranasal Sinuses
=> Pharynx
=> Larynx
=> Trachea
=> Gross Anatomy of the Lungs
=> The Pleural Cavities and Pleural Membranes
=> The Respiratory Muscles
=> Gas Exchange
=> Control of Breathing
=> Factors of Respiratory Rate and Depth
=> Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System
=> Summary

Chapter 22: Urinary System


=> Urinary System
=> Anatomy of the Kidneys
=> Internal Kidney Anatomy
=> Structures of the Nephron
=> Formation of Urine
=> Glomerular Filtration
=> Tubular Reabsorption
=> Tubular Secretion
=> Composition of Urine
=> Ureters
=> Urinary Bladder
=> Urethra
=> Effects of Aging on the Urinary System
=> Summary

Chapter 23: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance


=> Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid Base Balance
=> Body Fluid Distribution
=> Fluid Balance
=> Fluid Intake and Output
=> Electrolyte Balance
=> Acid-Base Balance
=> Acid-Base Imbalances
=> Effects of Aging on Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
=> Summary

Chapter 24: Digestive System


=> Digestive System
=> Alimentary Canal
=> Functions of the Digestive System
=> Movement of Digestive Materials
=> Mouth
=> Salivary Glands
=> Teeth
=> Esophagus
=> Stomach
=> Small Intestine
=> Liver
=> Gallbladder
=> Pancreas
=> Large Intestine
=> Digestion and Absorption of Nutrients
=> Effects of Aging on the Digestive System
=> Summary

SECTION VI: Continuity of Life



Chapter 25: Reproductive System


=> Reproductive System
=> Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
=> Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
=> Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
=> Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
=> Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)
=> Effects of Aging on the Reproductive System
=> Summary

Chapter 26: Pregnancy and Development


=> Pregnancy and Development
=> Fertilization
=> Prenatal Development
=> Parturition (Birth)
=> Postnatal Development: Lactation
=> Summary

Chapter 27: Heredity


=> Heredity
=> Genes
=> Genetic Variation
=> Patterns of Inheritance
=> Heredity: Environmental Factors
=> Heredity: Gender-Related Factors
=> Genetic Screening
=> Summary

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