The study of fluids at rest is based on two principles:

**FLUIDS AT REST: HYDROSTATICS**

The
study of fluids at rest is based on two principles:

1. Pressure intensity at a point, expressed as force per
unit area, is the same in all directions.

2. Pressure is the same at all points in a given horizontal
line in a continuous fluid.

The
pressure, P, varies with depth, z, in a manner expressed by the hydrostatic
equation

d*P* = -ρgdz (2:2)

where
ρ is the density of the fluid and *g*
is the gravitational constant. Since water and most other liquids can be
regarded as incompressible, the density is independent of the pressure, and
integration between the limits P_{1} and P_{2}, z_{1}
and z_{2}, gives

P_{1}
- P_{2} = ρg(z_{1} z_{2}) (2:3)

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