Factors Affecting Biotransformation of Drugs

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Chapter: Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics : Biotransformation of Drugs

The therapeutic efficacy, toxicity and biological half-life of a drug greatly depend upon its metabolic rate.


FACTORS AFFECTING BIOTRANSFORMATION OF DRUGS

The therapeutic efficacy, toxicity and biological half-life of a drug greatly depend upon its metabolic rate. A number of factors may influence the rate of drug metabolism. They are:

1. Physicochemical properties of the drug

2. Chemical factors:

a. Induction of drug metabolising enzymes

b. Inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes

c. Environmental chemicals

3. Biological factors:

a. Species differences

b. Strain differences

c. Sex differences

d. Age

e. Diet

f. Altered physiologic factors:

i. Pregnancy

ii. Hormonal imbalance

iii. Disease states

g. Temporal factors:

i. Circadian rhythm

ii. Circannual rhythm

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