Losses occur at the various fittings and valves used in practical systems in addition to the friction losses at the wall of a straight pipe.

**FRICTIONAL LOSSES AT PIPE
FITTINGS**

Losses
occur at the various fittings and valves used in practical systems in addition
to the friction losses at the wall of a straight pipe. In general, these losses
are derived from sudden changes in the magnitude or direction of flow induced
by changes in geometry. They can be classified as loss due to a sudden
contraction of enlargement, losses at entrance or exit, and loss due to pipe
curvature. Losses can be conveniently expressed as a length of straight pipe
offering the same resistance. This is usually in the form of a number of pipe
diameters. For example, the loss at a right-angled elbow is equivalent to a
length of straight pipe equal to 40 diameters. The sum of the equivalent
lengths of all fittings and values is then added to the actual pipe length, and
the total frictional loss is estimated by equation (2.20).

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