Discussion of flow in pipes has been restricted to pipes of circular cross section.

**FLOW IN TUBES IN NONCIRCULAR
CROSS SECTION**

Discussion
of flow in pipes has been restricted to pipes of circular cross section. The
previous exposition may be applied to turbulent flow in noncircular ducts by
introducing a dimension equivalent to the diameter of a circular pipe. This is
known as the mean hydraulic diameter, d_{m}, which is defined as four
times the cross-sectional area divided by the wetted perimeter. A few examples
are as follows:

For
a square channel of side b,

For
an annulus of outer radius r_{1} and inner radius r_{2},

This
simple modification does not apply to laminar flow in noncircular ducts.

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