Lactose Synthesis

| Home | | Biochemistry |

Chapter: Biochemistry : Metabolism of Monosaccharides and Disaccharides

Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of a molecule of β-galactose attached by a β(1→4) linkage to glucose. Therefore, lactose is galactosyl β(1→4)-glucose. Lactose, known as “milk sugar,” is made by lactating (milk-producing) mammary glands.


LACTOSE SYNTHESIS

Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of a molecule of β-galactose attached by a β(1→4) linkage to glucose. Therefore, lactose is galactosyl β(1→4)-glucose. Lactose, known as “milk sugar,” is made by lactating (milk-producing) mammary glands. Therefore, milk and other dairy products are the dietary sources of lactose. Lactose is synthesized in the Golgi b y lactose synthase (UDP-galactose:glucose galactosyltransferase), which transfers galactose from UDP-galactose to glucose, releasing UDP (Figure 12.7). This enzyme is composed of two proteins, A and B. Protein A is a β-D-galactosyltransferase and is found in a number of body tissues. In tissues other than the lactating mammary gland, this enzyme transfers galactose from UDP-galactose to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, forming the same β(1→4) linkage found in lactose, and producing N-acetyllactosamine, a component of the structurally important N-linked glycoproteins. In contrast, protein B is found only in lactating mammary glands. It is α-lactalbumin, and its synthesis is stimulated by the peptide hormone prolactin. Protein B forms a complex with the enzyme, protein A, changing the specificity of that transferase so that lactose, rather than N-acetyllactosamine, is produced (see Figure 12.7).


Figure 12.7 Lactose synthesis. UDP = uridine diphosphate.

Contact Us, Privacy Policy, Terms and Compliant, DMCA Policy and Compliant

TH 2019 - 2023 pharmacy180.com; Developed by Therithal info.