# The Correlation Matrix

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## Chapter: Biostatistics for the Health Sciences: Correlation, Linear Regression, and Logistic Regression

A correlation matrix presents correlation coefficients among a group of variables.

CORRELATION MATRIX

A correlation matrix presents correlation coefficients among a group of variables. An investigator portrays all possible bivariate combinations of a set of variables in order to ascertain patterns of interesting associations for further study. Table 12.4 illustrates a matrix of correlations among seven risk factor variables for coronary heart disease among a sample of older men. Note that the upper and lower diagonals of the grid are bisected by diagonal cells in which all of the values are 1.000, meaning that these cells show the variables correlated with themselves. The upper and lower parts of the diagonal are equivalent. The significance of the correlations are indicated with one asterisk or two asterisks for a correlation that is significant at the p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 levels, respectively. A correlation matrix can aid in data reduction (identifying the most important variables in a data set) or de-scriptive analyses (describing interesting patterns that may be present in the data set).

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