we present examples of several types of relationships between two variables.

**RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TWO VARIABLES**

In Figure 12.1, we present examples of several
types of relationships between two variables. Note that the horizontal and
vertical axes are denoted by the symbols X and Y, respectively.

Both Figures 12.1A and 12.1B represent linear
associations, whereas the remaining figures illustrate nonlinear associations.
Figures 12.1A and 12.1B portray direct and inverse linear associations,
respectively. The remaining figures represent non-linear associations, which
cannot be assessed directly by using a Pearson correlation coefficient. To
assess these types of associations, we will need to apply other statistical
methods such as those described in Chapter 14 (nonparametric tests). In other
cases, we can use data transformations, a topic that will be discussed briefly
later in this text.

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